Abstract

One of NASA’s major scientific initiatives in astrophysics, the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, is an orbiting observatory designed to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of stellar objects between 910 and 1150 Å. To achieve the 100 cm2 of effective area required to observe faint quasars, the mission has adopted an unconventional design that couples grazing-incidence Wolter optics and an aberration-corrected Rowland circle spectrograph. The projected cost of the satellite has, however, become very high, driven in large part by the cost of the grazing optics and the side effects of compensating for their relatively poor performance. The logic that leads to the current design is reanalyzed, and it is argued that because of the technical developments of the last 7 years, grazing incidence is no longer the most attractive alternative. In particular, the application of aberration-corrected, spherical substrate, holographic gratings now greatly simplifies the design and thereby reduces the cost. A new design is presented that substantially outperforms the old and that is easier to fabricate.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Spitzer, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet studies of the interstellar gas,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 133–164 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Windt, W. Cash, M. Scott, P. Arendt, B. Newnam, R. Fisher, A. Swarzlander, “Optical constants for thin films of Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au from 24 Å to 1216 Å,” Appl. Opt. 27, 246–278 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Windt, W. Cash, M. Scott, P. Arendt, B. Newnam, R. Fisher, A. Swartzlander, P. Takacs, J. M. Pinneo, “Optical constants for thin films of C, diamond, Al, Si, and CVD SiC from 24 Å to 1216 Å,” Appl. Opt. 27, 279–295 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Windt, B. Bach, “Ion beam deposited silicon carbide on glass optics and replica gratings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3047–3049 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Kortright, D. L. Windt, “Amorphous silicon carbide coatings for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2841–2846 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Grange, “Aberration-reduced holographic spherical gratings for Rowland circle spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3744–3749 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Grange, “A new family of quasi-stigmatic holographic spherical gratings used in the Rowland circle mounting,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4875–4880 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. E. McClintock, W. Cash, “Grazing incidence optics: new techniques for high sensitivity spectroscopy in the space ultraviolet,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 321–333 (1982).
  11. W. Cash, “Aspheric concave grating spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4518–4522 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).
  13. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied, Lincoln, Neb., 1967).
  14. R. Prangé, M. Duban, A. Vidal-Madjar, J. Barnstedt, D. Parisot, M. Decaudin, J. P. Crussaire, C. Laurent, A. Lebèque, G. Ancourt, J. Flamand, M. Grewing, R. Hoekstra, A. Thévenon, G. Bargot, M. Barthélémy, F. Canovas, J. Charra, C. Hallier, H. Lagardère, G. Levanti, G. Michaud, H. Poncet, “30-cm objective grating for far-UV astronomy: theoretical study and laboratory tests,” Appl. Opt. 28, 496–509 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. F. Osantowski, P. M. Davila, T. T. Saha, “Telescope technology for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer(FUSE),” Opt. Eng. 25, 1039–1044 (1986).
  17. S. P. Sarlin, W. Cash, J. C. Green, “An advanced holographically ruled grating,” Preprint, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (1995).
  18. S. P. Sarlin, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (personal communication), 1994.
  19. C. L. Joseph, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet interstellar lines in the spectrum of π Scorpii recorded at 2 kilometers per second resolution,” Astrophys. J. 368, 201–214 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Grange, “Aberration-reduced holographic spherical gratings for Rowland circle spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3744–3749 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. L. Joseph, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet interstellar lines in the spectrum of π Scorpii recorded at 2 kilometers per second resolution,” Astrophys. J. 368, 201–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (4)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

J. F. Osantowski, P. M. Davila, T. T. Saha, “Telescope technology for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer(FUSE),” Opt. Eng. 25, 1039–1044 (1986).

1984 (2)

1975 (1)

L. Spitzer, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet studies of the interstellar gas,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 133–164 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ancourt, G.

Arendt, P.

Bach, B.

Bargot, G.

Barnstedt, J.

Barthélémy, M.

Canovas, F.

Cash, W.

Charra, J.

Content, D. A.

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

Crussaire, J. P.

Davila, P. M.

J. F. Osantowski, P. M. Davila, T. T. Saha, “Telescope technology for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer(FUSE),” Opt. Eng. 25, 1039–1044 (1986).

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

Decaudin, M.

Drake, J. F.

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dressler, K.

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Duban, M.

Everman, E.

Fisher, R.

Flamand, J.

Friedman, S. D.

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

Grange, R.

R. Grange, “A new family of quasi-stigmatic holographic spherical gratings used in the Rowland circle mounting,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4875–4880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, “Aberration-reduced holographic spherical gratings for Rowland circle spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3744–3749 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, J. C.

S. P. Sarlin, W. Cash, J. C. Green, “An advanced holographically ruled grating,” Preprint, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (1995).

Grewing, M.

Gum, J. S.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallier, C.

Herzig, H.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoekstra, R.

Jenkins, E. B.

C. L. Joseph, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet interstellar lines in the spectrum of π Scorpii recorded at 2 kilometers per second resolution,” Astrophys. J. 368, 201–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Spitzer, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet studies of the interstellar gas,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 133–164 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, C. L.

C. L. Joseph, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet interstellar lines in the spectrum of π Scorpii recorded at 2 kilometers per second resolution,” Astrophys. J. 368, 201–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kortright, J. B.

Lagardère, H.

Lampton, M.

Laurent, C.

Lebèque, A.

Levanti, G.

McClintock, W. E.

W. E. McClintock, W. Cash, “Grazing incidence optics: new techniques for high sensitivity spectroscopy in the space ultraviolet,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 321–333 (1982).

Michaud, G.

Morton, D. C.

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Newnam, B.

Osantowski, J. F.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Osantowski, P. M. Davila, T. T. Saha, “Telescope technology for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer(FUSE),” Opt. Eng. 25, 1039–1044 (1986).

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

Parisot, D.

Pinneo, J. M.

Poncet, H.

Prangé, R.

Rogerson, J. B.

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Saha, T. T.

J. F. Osantowski, P. M. Davila, T. T. Saha, “Telescope technology for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer(FUSE),” Opt. Eng. 25, 1039–1044 (1986).

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied, Lincoln, Neb., 1967).

Sarlin, S. P.

S. P. Sarlin, W. Cash, J. C. Green, “An advanced holographically ruled grating,” Preprint, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (1995).

S. P. Sarlin, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (personal communication), 1994.

Scott, M.

Siegmund, O. H. W.

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet studies of the interstellar gas,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 133–164 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, A.

Swarzlander, A.

Takacs, P.

Thévenon, A.

Toft, A. R.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallerga, J.

Vidal-Madjar, A.

Wilson, M. E.

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

Windt, D.

Windt, D. L.

York, D. G.

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

L. Spitzer, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet studies of the interstellar gas,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 133–164 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. F. Osantowski, H. Herzig, J. S. Gum, A. R. Toft, “Normal incidence reflectance of ion beam deposited SiC films in the EUV,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2815–2816 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, “Aberration-reduced holographic spherical gratings for Rowland circle spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3744–3749 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (8)

R. Grange, “A new family of quasi-stigmatic holographic spherical gratings used in the Rowland circle mounting,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4875–4880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Windt, W. Cash, M. Scott, P. Arendt, B. Newnam, R. Fisher, A. Swarzlander, “Optical constants for thin films of Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au from 24 Å to 1216 Å,” Appl. Opt. 27, 246–278 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Windt, W. Cash, M. Scott, P. Arendt, B. Newnam, R. Fisher, A. Swartzlander, P. Takacs, J. M. Pinneo, “Optical constants for thin films of C, diamond, Al, Si, and CVD SiC from 24 Å to 1216 Å,” Appl. Opt. 27, 279–295 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Windt, B. Bach, “Ion beam deposited silicon carbide on glass optics and replica gratings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3047–3049 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Kortright, D. L. Windt, “Amorphous silicon carbide coatings for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2841–2846 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Prangé, M. Duban, A. Vidal-Madjar, J. Barnstedt, D. Parisot, M. Decaudin, J. P. Crussaire, C. Laurent, A. Lebèque, G. Ancourt, J. Flamand, M. Grewing, R. Hoekstra, A. Thévenon, G. Bargot, M. Barthélémy, F. Canovas, J. Charra, C. Hallier, H. Lagardère, G. Levanti, G. Michaud, H. Poncet, “30-cm objective grating for far-UV astronomy: theoretical study and laboratory tests,” Appl. Opt. 28, 496–509 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. Vallerga, M. Lampton, “Soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3607–3614 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cash, “Aspheric concave grating spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4518–4522 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

C. L. Joseph, E. B. Jenkins, “Ultraviolet interstellar lines in the spectrum of π Scorpii recorded at 2 kilometers per second resolution,” Astrophys. J. 368, 201–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

J. B. Rogerson, L. Spitzer, J. F. Drake, K. Dressler, E. B. Jenkins, D. C. Morton, D. G. York, “Spectrophotometric results from the Cornicus Satellite. I. Instrumentation and performance,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 181, L97–L102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. F. Osantowski, P. M. Davila, T. T. Saha, “Telescope technology for the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer(FUSE),” Opt. Eng. 25, 1039–1044 (1986).

Other (5)

S. P. Sarlin, W. Cash, J. C. Green, “An advanced holographically ruled grating,” Preprint, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (1995).

S. P. Sarlin, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 80309-0389 (personal communication), 1994.

D. A. Content, P. M. Davila, J. F. Osantowski, T. T. Saha, M. E. Wilson, S. D. Friedman, “Optical Design of Lyman/FUSE,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1235, 943–952 (1990).

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Pied, Lincoln, Neb., 1967).

W. E. McClintock, W. Cash, “Grazing incidence optics: new techniques for high sensitivity spectroscopy in the space ultraviolet,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 321–333 (1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Four telescope configurations: (a) the Wadsworth configuration, (b) the prime-focus option, (c) the Cassegrain configuration, (d) the Wolter telescope option.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the Rowland circle for the holographic grating described in Table 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recording geometry for the holographic grating described in Table 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spot diagrams of five wavelengths: 910, 940, 970, 1000, and 1030 Å. At each wavelength, ray tracing of the central wavelength and the central wavelength plus 0.03 Å was performed, establishing resolution in excess of 30,000 across the band.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective area of the FUSE design shown as a function of wavelength. The lower curve assumes an unblazed holographic grating with ~30% groove efficiency; the upper curve assumes that ion etching has raised the groove efficiency to 50%. Note that a throughput well in excess of the goal of 100 cm2 is achieved across the band.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Analysis of the Telescope Options

Tables Icon

Table 2 Analysis of the Telescope Options by Use of 1984 Assumptions

Tables Icon

Table 3 Grating Specifications

Metrics