Abstract

The real-time hologram formation in dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films has been studied in the presence of external electron donors included in the formulation. The effect of different external electron donors on the photosensitivity and real-time diffraction efficiency of volume holographic transmission gratings has been reported. The electron donors studied were found to be detrimental to both holographic characteristics, even in small concentrations. Some parameters that influence the holographic performance are discussed, and results are given. The photochemical recording mechanism in dichromated polyvinyl alcohol in the presence and absence of electron donors is briefly discussed.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).
  2. B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording II: mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25–29 (1990).
  3. V. A. Barachevsky, “Organic light-sensitive media for holographic optical elements,” in Holography ’89, Y. N. Denisyuk, T. H. Jeong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1183, 143–153 (1990).
  4. M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording,” J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191–196 (1990).
  5. S. Lelievre, J. J. A. Couture, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films used as a novel polarization real-time hologram recording material,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4384–4391 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Cr vi- and Fe iv-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 671–676 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. Roberge, “Methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin as a photosensitive medium for conventional and polarizing holography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1989–1997 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Changkakoti, S. S. C. Babu, S. V. Pappu, “Role of external electron donor in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms: an experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 324–330 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Blyth, “Methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms: a new electron donor for their improved photosensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1598–1602 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical modification of high polymers by visible light,” J. Polym. Sci. 48, 321–327 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sasaki, K. Honda, S. Kikuchi, “Studies on photosensitive dichromated materials,” Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 27, 1–58 (1978).

1993 (2)

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Cr vi- and Fe iv-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 671–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (4)

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording II: mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25–29 (1990).

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording,” J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191–196 (1990).

S. Lelievre, J. J. A. Couture, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films used as a novel polarization real-time hologram recording material,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4384–4391 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1978 (1)

M. Sasaki, K. Honda, S. Kikuchi, “Studies on photosensitive dichromated materials,” Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 27, 1–58 (1978).

1960 (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical modification of high polymers by visible light,” J. Polym. Sci. 48, 321–327 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, M. K.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Babu, S. S. C.

Barachevsky, V. A.

V. A. Barachevsky, “Organic light-sensitive media for holographic optical elements,” in Holography ’89, Y. N. Denisyuk, T. H. Jeong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1183, 143–153 (1990).

Blyth, J.

Bolte, M.

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chan, D. M. T.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Changkakoti, R.

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Cr vi- and Fe iv-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 671–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Changkakoti, S. S. C. Babu, S. V. Pappu, “Role of external electron donor in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin holograms: an experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 27, 324–330 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couture, J. J. A.

Harington, A. F.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Honda, K.

M. Sasaki, K. Honda, S. Kikuchi, “Studies on photosensitive dichromated materials,” Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 27, 1–58 (1978).

Keys, D. E.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Kikuchi, S.

M. Sasaki, K. Honda, S. Kikuchi, “Studies on photosensitive dichromated materials,” Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 27, 1–58 (1978).

Krebs, R. R.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Lelievre, S.

Lessard, R. A.

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Cr vi- and Fe iv-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 671–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. Roberge, “Methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin as a photosensitive medium for conventional and polarizing holography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1989–1997 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mailhot, G.

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mannivanan, G.

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Cr vi- and Fe iv-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 671–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mazakova, M.

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording,” J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191–196 (1990).

Mickish, D. J.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Monroe, B. M.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording II: mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25–29 (1990).

Oster, G.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical modification of high polymers by visible light,” J. Polym. Sci. 48, 321–327 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Oster, G. K.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical modification of high polymers by visible light,” J. Polym. Sci. 48, 321–327 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Pantcheva, M.

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording,” J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191–196 (1990).

Pappu, S. V.

Roberge, P.

Sasaki, M.

M. Sasaki, K. Honda, S. Kikuchi, “Studies on photosensitive dichromated materials,” Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 27, 1–58 (1978).

Schicker, S. R.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Smother, W. K.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Solano, C.

Weathers, C. I.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Imaging Sci. (2)

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smother, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Armstrong, D. M. T. Chan, C. I. Weathers, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording I: imaging properties,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19–24 (1990).

B. M. Monroe, “Improved photopolymers for holographic recording II: mechanism of hologram formation,” J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25–29 (1990).

J. Inf. Rec. Mater. (1)

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, “Dichromated polyvinyl alcohol for holographic recording,” J. Inf. Rec. Mater. 18, 191–196 (1990).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocess of Cr vi in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated polyvinyl alcohol,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical modification of high polymers by visible light,” J. Polym. Sci. 48, 321–327 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Mannivanan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, “Cr vi- and Fe iv-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 671–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo (1)

M. Sasaki, K. Honda, S. Kikuchi, “Studies on photosensitive dichromated materials,” Rep. Inst. Ind. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 27, 1–58 (1978).

Other (1)

V. A. Barachevsky, “Organic light-sensitive media for holographic optical elements,” in Holography ’89, Y. N. Denisyuk, T. H. Jeong, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1183, 143–153 (1990).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Holographic recording and replay setup: M, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; L, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time diffraction efficiency η as a function of exposure energy E for DC-PVA and for varying concentrations of TMG added to the solution mixture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Real-time diffraction efficiency η as a function of exposure energy E for DC-PVA and for varying concentrations of DABCO added to the solution mixture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time diffraction efficiency η as a function of exposure energy E for DC-PVA and for varying concentrations of DMEMA added to the solution mixture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Real-time diffraction efficiency η as a function of exposure energy E for DC-PVA and for varying concentrations of TEA added to the solution mixture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resonating structure of the TMG.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Amine-chromium chelate ring.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Real-time diffraction efficiency η for DC-PVA for various total intensities of the recording beams.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Real-time diffraction efficiency η for DC-PVA with two different concentrations of TMG for varying intensities of the recording beams.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Real-time diffraction efficiency η for DC-PVA with two different concentrations of DMEMA for varying intensities of the recording beams.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Real-time diffraction efficiency η for two total intensities of the recording beams.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical Composition of the Photosensitive Mixture

Tables Icon

Table 2 Names and Structure Formulas of the Amines Used

Tables Icon

Table 3 Transmittance of the Nonexposed and Exposed Areas in DC-PVA Films With and Without External Electron Donors

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Cr 2 O 7 2 - h ν Cr * VI in polymer matrix Cr v + ( PVA ) · h ν Cr III + cross - linked PVA .
order of bleaching TEA < DMEMA < DABCO < TMG .
Cr VI h ν excited Cr VI excited Cr VI + P Cr V + P · Cr V + P · h ν Cr III - P ( cross - linking , complexation ) ,

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