Abstract

Most atmospheric-turbulence-compensation experiments have been performed under weak-scintillation conditions; conventional phase-conjugate adaptive-optics systems usually provide good correction for these conditions. We have performed an experiment over a 5.5-km horizontal propagation path to explore the efficacy of conventional adaptive optics in strong-scintillation conditions. The experimental results showed a significant degradation in correction as the scintillation increased. The presence of branch points in the phase appears to be the primary reason for the degradation in correction as the scintillation increases.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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1992

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “Branch cuts in the phase function,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2865–2882 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1985

M. S. Scivier, M. A. Fiddy, “Phase ambiguities and the zeros of multidimensional band-limited functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 693–697 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

1977

1976

1974

1970

R. S. Lawrence, J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1546 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968

J. W. Strohbehn, “Line-of-sight propagation through the turbulent atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 56, 1301–1318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

Ameer, G. A.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, H. T.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boeke, B. R.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S. L.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fiddy, M. A.

M. S. Scivier, M. A. Fiddy, “Phase ambiguities and the zeros of multidimensional band-limited functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 693–697 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, J. L. Vaughn, “Branch cuts in the phase function,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2865–2882 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Limiting resolution looking down through the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1380–1384 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gilmartin, T. J.

Greenwood, D. P.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, “Adaptive optics—a progress review,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 2–17 (1991).

Herrmann, J.

Holz, J. Z.

Hufnagel, R. E.

R. E. Hufnagel, “Propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared Handbook, W. I. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Lawrence, R. S.

R. S. Lawrence, J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1546 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Malyak, P. H.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

McGonagle, W. H.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

Mooney, J. G.

R. J. Sasiela, J. G. Mooney, “An optical phase reconstructor based on using a multiplier-accumulator approach,” in Adaptive Optics, J. E. Ludman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.551, 170–176 (1985).

Murphy, D. V.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Page, D. A.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Primmerman, C. A.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reich, R. K.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

Roberts, P. H.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, G. S.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

Ruane, R. E.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasiela, R. J.

R. J. Sasiela, J. G. Mooney, “An optical phase reconstructor based on using a multiplier-accumulator approach,” in Adaptive Optics, J. E. Ludman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.551, 170–176 (1985).

Scivier, M. S.

M. S. Scivier, M. A. Fiddy, “Phase ambiguities and the zeros of multidimensional band-limited functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 693–697 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Strohbehn, J. W.

R. S. Lawrence, J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1546 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, “Line-of-sight propagation through the turbulent atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 56, 1301–1318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

Takajo, H.

Twichell, J. C.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

Tyler, G. A.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, J. L.

Wopat, L. M.

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zollars, B. G.

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lincoln Laboratory J.

H. T. Barclay, P. H. Malyak, W. H. McGonagle, R. K. Reich, G. S. Rowe, J. C. Twichell, “The SWAT wavefront sensor,” Lincoln Laboratory J. 5, 115–130 (1992).

Nature (London)

C. A. Primmerman, D. V. Murphy, D. A. Page, B. G. Zollars, H. T. Barclay, “Compensation of atmospheric optical distortions using a synthetic beacon,” Nature (London) 353, 141–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Fugate, D. L. Fried, G. A. Ameer, B. R. Boeke, S. L. Browne, P. H. Roberts, R. E. Ruane, G. A. Tyler, L. M. Wopat, “Measurement of atmospheric wavefront distortion using scattered light from a laser guide-star,” Nature (London) 353, 144–146 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

R. S. Lawrence, J. W. Strohbehn, “A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1523–1546 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Strohbehn, “Line-of-sight propagation through the turbulent atmosphere,” Proc. IEEE 56, 1301–1318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Sasiela, J. G. Mooney, “An optical phase reconstructor based on using a multiplier-accumulator approach,” in Adaptive Optics, J. E. Ludman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.551, 170–176 (1985).

R. E. Hufnagel, “Propagation through atmospheric turbulence,” in The Infrared Handbook, W. I. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1978).

J. W. Hardy, “Adaptive optics—a progress review,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 2–17 (1991).

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