Abstract

Two satellite-borne ocean-color sensors scheduled for launch in the mid 1990’s each have a spectral band (nominally 745–785 nm) that completely encompasses the O2 A band at 762 nm. These spectral bands are to be used in atmospheric correction of the color imagery by assessment of the aerosol contribution to the total radiance at the sensor. The effect of the O2 band on the radiance measured at the satellite is studied with a line-by-line backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. As expected, if the O2 absorption is ignored, unacceptably large errors in the atmospheric correction result. The effects of the absorption depend on the vertical profile of the aerosol. By assuming an aerosol profile—the base profile—we show that it is possible to remove most of the O2-absorption effects from atmospheric correction in a simple manner. We also investigate the sensitivity of the results to the details of the assumed base profile and find that, with the exception of situations in which there are significant quantities of aerosol in the stratosphere, e.g., following volcanic eruptions or in the presence of thin cirrus clouds, the quality of the atmospheric correction depends only weakly on the base profile. Situations with high concentrations of stratospheric aerosol require additional information regarding vertical structure for this spectral band to be used in atmospheric correction; however, it should be possible to infer the presence of such aerosol by a failure of the atmospheric correction to produce acceptable water-leaving radiance in the red. An important feature of our method for removal of the O2-absorption effects is that it permits the use of lookup tables that can be prepared in the absence of O2 absorption by the use of more efficient radiative transfer codes.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1994

1991

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expendition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1984

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meterol. 23, 1121–1137 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

1980

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Ackleson, S. G.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Arking, A.

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meterol. 23, 1121–1137 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, L. R.

Brown, O. B.

Camy-Peyret, C.

Carle, M.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Cox, C.

Deluisi, J. J.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expendition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

Elrod, J.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Endres, D.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA tech. memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

Feldman, G. C.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA tech. memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Fitzgerald, J. W.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

Frick, G. M.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Gamache, R. R.

Gillis, J. R.

Goldenberg, S.

Goldman, A.

Good, R. E.

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “CZCS ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA tech. memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Harshvardhan,

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meterol. 23, 1121–1137 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Holligan, P. M.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA tech. memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hoppel, W. A.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, W. A.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaacs, R. G.

Kenizys, F. X.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Kim, Y.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expendition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meterol. 23, 1121–1137 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kreiner, F. W.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expendition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuring, N.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Larson, R. E.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, Radiation and Cloud Processes in the Atmosphere (Oxford University, New York, 1992).

Mack, E. J.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, N.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA tech. memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mill, J. D.

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munk, W.

Ng, C.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Podesta, G.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, P. J.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expendition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Barbe, A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “AFGL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation: 1982 edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247–2256 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sayed, S. Y. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanre, D.

Toth, R. A.

Volz, F. E.

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

Voss, K. J.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, S.

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, W.-C.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worsham, R. D.

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Barbe, A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “AFGL atmospheric absorption line parameters compilation: 1982 edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247–2256 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Isaacs, W.-C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple scattering lowtran and fascode models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

G. C. Feldman, N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C. R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, G. Podesta, “Ocean color: availability of the global data set,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 70, 634–641 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expendition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate Appl. Meterol.

M. D. King, Harshvardhan, A. Arking, “A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meterol. 23, 1121–1137 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys Res.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys Res. 95, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, “CZCS ‘system calibration’: a retrospective examination,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Limnol. Oceanogr.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA tech. memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

U.S. Committee on Extension to the Standard Atmosphere, U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).

World Climate Programme-112, “Apreliminary cloudless standard atmosphere for radiation computation,” WMO/TD-no. 24 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1986).

F. X. Kenizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: The lowtran 7 Model (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

R. W. Fenn, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, R. E. Good, F. X. Kenizys, J. D. Mill, L. S. Rothman, E. P. Shettle, F. E. Volz, “Optical and infrared properties of the atmosphere,” in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, A. S. Jursa, ed. (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass.1985) p. 18-1–18-80.

K. N. Liou, Radiation and Cloud Processes in the Atmosphere (Oxford University, New York, 1992).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Portion of the O2 A band at 762 nm that covers approximately 1.165 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the aerosol profile for the atmospheric model described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fractional change in reflectance (ρr − ρr′)/ρr′ as a function of M for a spectral band from 745 to 785 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error in the estimated value of ρr′, as found with Eq. (4), for the simulations in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional change in reflectance (ρA − ρA′)/ρA′ as a function of M for a spectral band from 745 to 785 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Error in the prediction of ρA from ρA′ when the actual aerosol profile differs from the base profile. h is the aerosol scale height. All test profiles use M50.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Error in the prediction of ρA from ρA′ when the actual aerosol profile differs from the base profile. h is the aerosol scale height. All test profiles use T50.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A − ρA′)/ρA′ as a function of M for the selected base profile.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the center of the scan with (a) aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 40 km and (b) aerosol profile T80-T50-B and VR = 40 km. Also shown is the error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the edge of the scan with (c) aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 40 km and (d) aerosol profile T80-T50-B and VR = 40 km.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the center of the scan with (a) aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 15 km and (b) aerosol profile T80-T50-B and VR = 15 km. Also shown is the error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the edge of the scan with (c) aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 15 km and (d) aerosol profile T80-T50-B and VR = 15 km.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the center of the scan with (a) aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 40 km, (b) aerosol profile T80-T50-B and VR = 40 km, (c) aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 15 km, and (d) aerosol profile T80-T50-B and VR = 40 km. (a)–(d) are shown with a simplified base profile.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the center of the scan with aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 40 km and the standard base profile, when volcanic aerosol (V) is added with (a) optical thickness 0.05 at 550 nm and (b) optical thickness 0.10 at 550 nm. Also shown is the error in the retrieved t(443)ρW(443) for viewing at the center of the scan with aerosol profile M80-T50-B and VR = 15 km, and the standard base profile, when volcanic aerosol (V) is added with (c) optical thickness 0.05 at 550 nm and (d) optical thickness 0.10 at 550 nm.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Total Aerosol Optical Thickness for Model M80-T50-B

Tables Icon

Table 2 Boundary-Layer Aerosol Optical Thickness for Model M80-T50-B

Tables Icon

Table 3 Total Aerosol Optical Thickness for Model T80-T50-B

Tables Icon

Table 4 Boundary-Layer Aerosol Optical Thickness for Model T80-T50-B

Tables Icon

Table 5 Δρ when the Existence of O2 Absorption Is Ignored

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L t ( λ ) = L r ( λ ) + L a ( λ ) + L r a ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) L W ( λ ) ,
ρ t ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) ρ W ( λ ) ,
M = 1 cos θ v + 1 cos θ 0 ,
ρ t ρ r = ρ a + ρ r a ρ A , ρ t ρ r = ρ a + ρ r a ρ A ,
log 10 ( ρ r ρ r ρ r ) = a r 0 + a r 1 M + a r 2 M 2 P r ( M ) ,
ρ r = [ 1 + 10 P r ( M ) ] 1 ρ r .
log 10 ( ρ A ρ A ρ A ) = a A 0 + a A 1 M + a A 2 M 2 P A ( M ) ,
ρ A = [ 1 + 10 P A ( M ) ] ρ A .

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