Abstract

A prototype multiprocessor system using three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects is constructed for the first time to our knowledge. In the system, 64 processing units form a three-dimensional mesh processor network with the help of bidirectional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects. A theoretical analysis shows that the three-dimensional board-to-board free-space optical interconnects effectively solve common interconnection problems such as wiring congestion, signal delay, and clock skew. The prototype system, COSINE-III, is confirmed to work well as a multiprocessor system. The system is also shown to be easy to extend to a larger and more flexible system.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. Special issue on supercomputing, IEEE Spectrum 29(9), 69–75 (1992).
  2. J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Okada, H. Tajima, Y. Hamazaki, K. Tamura, “Dialog H: A highly parallel processor based on optical common bus,” in COMPCON’83, 1983 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), pp. 461–467.
  4. T. Matsumoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” Proceedings ICCD’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 426–429.
  5. J. W. Parker, “Progress in optical interconnection technologies and demonstrators under the ESPRIT II OLIVES programme,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 304–307.
  6. D. Z. Tsang, “Optical interconnects for digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 7, 10–15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Ayliffe, J. W. Parker, A. Robinson, “Comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 2–15 (1990).
  8. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).
  9. K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

Special issue on supercomputing, IEEE Spectrum 29(9), 69–75 (1992).

D. Z. Tsang, “Optical interconnects for digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 7, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, P. J.

P. J. Ayliffe, J. W. Parker, A. Robinson, “Comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 2–15 (1990).

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Criscri, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, Y.

Y. Okada, H. Tajima, Y. Hamazaki, K. Tamura, “Dialog H: A highly parallel processor based on optical common bus,” in COMPCON’83, 1983 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), pp. 461–467.

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Kung, S. Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Leonberger, F. I.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” Proceedings ICCD’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 426–429.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” Proceedings ICCD’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 426–429.

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada, H. Tajima, Y. Hamazaki, K. Tamura, “Dialog H: A highly parallel processor based on optical common bus,” in COMPCON’83, 1983 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), pp. 461–467.

Parker, J. W.

P. J. Ayliffe, J. W. Parker, A. Robinson, “Comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 2–15 (1990).

J. W. Parker, “Progress in optical interconnection technologies and demonstrators under the ESPRIT II OLIVES programme,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 304–307.

Robinson, A.

P. J. Ayliffe, J. W. Parker, A. Robinson, “Comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 2–15 (1990).

Sakano, T.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” Proceedings ICCD’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 426–429.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Sawabe, T.

T. Matsumoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” Proceedings ICCD’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 426–429.

Tajima, H.

Y. Okada, H. Tajima, Y. Hamazaki, K. Tamura, “Dialog H: A highly parallel processor based on optical common bus,” in COMPCON’83, 1983 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), pp. 461–467.

Tamura, K.

Y. Okada, H. Tajima, Y. Hamazaki, K. Tamura, “Dialog H: A highly parallel processor based on optical common bus,” in COMPCON’83, 1983 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), pp. 461–467.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Tsang, D. Z.

D. Z. Tsang, “Optical interconnects for digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 7, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

IEEE Spectrum (1)

Special issue on supercomputing, IEEE Spectrum 29(9), 69–75 (1992).

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

D. Z. Tsang, “Optical interconnects for digital systems,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 7, 10–15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Y. Okada, H. Tajima, Y. Hamazaki, K. Tamura, “Dialog H: A highly parallel processor based on optical common bus,” in COMPCON’83, 1983 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), pp. 461–467.

T. Matsumoto, T. Sakano, K. Noguchi, T. Sawabe, “Computer systems employing reconfigurable board-to-board free-space optical interconnections: COSINE-1 and -2,” Proceedings ICCD’90 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 426–429.

J. W. Parker, “Progress in optical interconnection technologies and demonstrators under the ESPRIT II OLIVES programme,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 304–307.

P. J. Ayliffe, J. W. Parker, A. Robinson, “Comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels,” in Optical Interconnections and Networks, H. Bartelt, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1281, 2–15 (1990).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Criscri, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual structures of (a) conventional backplane interconnects and (b) 3-D free-space optical interconnects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System model used for signal-delay analysis of backplane interconnects and free-space optical interconnects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of the calculated minimum signal delay normalized by T.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated relationships between node number N and average delay normalized by T. way to fully extract the processors’ potential in the near future.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reduction of wiring congestion by application of free-space optical interconnects to a 3-D mesh multiprocessor system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Configuration of the fabricated free-space optical interconnect based on the differential-signal-transmission method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured coupling characteristics between LED-1 and PD-1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured cross-talk characteristics for the LED-1 and PD-1 pair.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER characteristics of the fabricated interconnect at 20 Mbits/s.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured relationship between BER, board-to-board separation L, and lateral board displacement d.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

System configuration of COSINE-III.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Outside view of COSINE-III with a side panel removed.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Close-up of one processor board.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Network configuration used for the program execution.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Image of the stiffener.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Example of system extension.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Extended system that enables us to reconfigure the interconnects between the rows of system units.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of Free-space Optical Interconnects

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of COSINE-III

Equations (4)

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D opt ( i , j ) = T { x j - x i + y j - y i + α z j - z i } ,
D bkp ( i , j ) = { T { x j - x i + y j - y i } ( z j = z i ) T { x j - x i + y j + y i + α z j - z i } ( z j z i ) ,
M B = 4 n 2 + 8 n .
M O = 8 n .

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