Abstract

An efficient, high-yield process for the production of binary-phase holograms is presented by controlled deposition of silicon nitride over a sapphire substrate with the binary structure formed by plasma etch of the silicon nitride. Optical results are presented for a 16 × 16 transmission fanout element that shows near-optimal performance.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. D. Beynon, I. Kirk, T. R. Mathews, “Gabor phase plate with binary transmittance values,” Opt. Lett. 17, 544–546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, “Beam array generation and holographic interconnections in a free-space optical switching network,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2512–2518 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated phase holograms on silver halide photographic emulsion,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1869–1877 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Verheijen, “E-beam lithography for digital hologams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 711–721 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of a diffractive microlens fabricated by thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
  7. J. M. Millar, M. R. Taghizadeh, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 723–732 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Sze, VLSI Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 260–262.
  9. H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Krackhardt, J. N. Mait, N. Streibl, “Upper bound on the diffraction efficiency of phase-only fanout elements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 27–37 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Millar, J. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. P. Dames, R. J. Dowlings, P. McKee, D. Wood, “Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2685–2691 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

1991

M. P. Dames, R. J. Dowlings, P. McKee, D. Wood, “Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2685–2691 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated phase holograms on silver halide photographic emulsion,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1869–1877 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

1988

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1971

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Beynon, T. D.

Cloonan, T. J.

Dames, M. P.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dowlings, R. J.

Downs, M. M.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

Gortler, K.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, H.

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Millar, J. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated phase holograms on silver halide photographic emulsion,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1869–1877 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jaakkola, J.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of a diffractive microlens fabricated by thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

Jin, G.

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, I.

Krackhardt, U.

Kuisma, S.

Mait, J. N.

Mathews, T. R.

McKee, P.

Millar, J. M.

Morrison, R. L.

Noponen, E.

Prise, M. E.

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

Ross, N.

J. M. Millar, M. R. Taghizadeh, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 723–732 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salin, A.

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

U. Krackhardt, J. N. Mait, N. Streibl, “Upper bound on the diffraction efficiency of phase-only fanout elements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 27–37 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, VLSI Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 260–262.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Millar, J. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Millar, M. R. Taghizadeh, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 723–732 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated phase holograms on silver halide photographic emulsion,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1869–1877 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Millar, J. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated phase holograms on silver halide photographic emulsion,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1869–1877 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vasara, A.

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Millar, J. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Millar, M. R. Taghizadeh, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 723–732 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Verheijen, M. J.

M. J. Verheijen, “E-beam lithography for digital hologams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 711–721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of a diffractive microlens fabricated by thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

Walker, S. L.

Westerholm, J.

A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, J. Westerholm, E. Noponen, H. Ichikawa, J. M. Millar, J. Jaakkola, S. Kuisma, “Binary surface-relief gratings for array illumination in digital optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3320–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Westerholm, S.

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. I. B.

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D.

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

M. J. Verheijen, “E-beam lithography for digital hologams,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 711–721 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Millar, M. R. Taghizadeh, N. Ross, E. Noponen, A. Vasara, “Kinoform array illuminators in fused silica,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 723–732 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Amorphous silicon nitride optical grating beam splitters,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 115, 165–167 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, S. Westerholm, G. Jin, A. Salin, “Optimization and fabrication of grating beam splitters,” J. Phys. D 21, 102–105 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. Ichikawa, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, “Noninterferometric fabrication of computer-generated phase holograms on silver halide photographic emulsion,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1869–1877 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).

Opt. Lett.

Other

S. M. Sze, VLSI Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), Chap. 6, pp. 260–262.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical diffraction pattern from a Dammann grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of a coated grating structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrograph showing the edge structure of a grating.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Binary-Phase Transition Point for a Unit Cell of a 16 × 16 Fanout Element with a Diffraction Efficiency of 79.5% in One Dimension

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