Abstract

The design, construction, and operational testing of a five-stage, fully interconnected 32 × 16 switching fabric by the use of smart-pixel (2, 1, 1) switching nodes are described. The arrays of switching nodes use monolithically integrated GaAs field-effect transistors, multiple-quantum-well p-i-n detectors, and self-electro-optic-device modulators. Each switching node incorporates 25 field-effect transistors and 17 diodes to realize two differential optical receivers, the 2 × 1 node switching logic, a single-bit node p-i-n control memory, and one differential optical transmitter. The five stages of node arrays are interconnected to form a two-dimensional banyan network by the use of Fourier-plane computer-generated holograms. System input and output are made by two-dimensional fiber-bundle matrices, and the system optical hardware design incorporates frequency-stabilized lasers, pupil-division beam combination, and a hybrid micro-macro lens for fiber-bundle imaging. Optomechanical packaging of the system utilizes modular kinematic component positioning and active thermal control to enable simple rapid assembly. Two preliminary operational experiments are completed. In the first experiment, five stages are operated at 50 Mbits/s with 15 active inputs and outputs. The second experiment attempts to operate two stages of second-generation node arrays at 155 Mbits/s, with eight of the 15 active nodes functioning correctly along the straight switch-routing paths.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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1994

1993

1992

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “Photonic switching nodes based on self electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S443–S464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Morgan, “Dynamic optical switching of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2631–2633 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

Barrett, C. P.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Basavanhally, N.

N. Basavanhally, “Opto-mechanical alignment and assembly of 2D-array components,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia4.

Beckman, M. G.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

Birch, M.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Morgan, “Dynamic optical switching of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2631–2633 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Brownjohn, N. A.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

Buller, G. S.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Morgan, “Dynamic optical switching of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2631–2633 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart pixel receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of two 128-pixel FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1993), pp. 222–225.

Cloonan, T. J.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “Photonic switching nodes based on self electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S443–S464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, “Computer generated holograms for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 96.

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

Craft, N. C.

Craig, R. G. A.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Downs, M. M.

Erickson, J. R.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feldblum, A. Y.

K. Mersereau, C. R. Nijander, A. Y. Feldblum, W. P. Townsend, “Fabrication of fused silica microlens arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia3.

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Freund, J. M.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Guth, G.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guth, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hinterlong, S. J.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

Hinton, H. S.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

Kerbis, E.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

LaMarche, R. E.

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Lentine, A. L.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “Photonic switching nodes based on self electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S443–S464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of two 128-pixel FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1993), pp. 222–225.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart pixel receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

Mackinnon, G.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Matsunaga, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “A new free-space switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” presented at the ICO Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Minsk, Byelorus, 29 June–July 1992.

McArdle, N.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

McCormick, F. B.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “Photonic switching nodes based on self electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S443–S464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Optomechanics of smart pixel systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE LEOD Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 67–68.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of two 128-pixel FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1993), pp. 222–225.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, “Computer generated holograms for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 96.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

McKnight, D. J.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Meredith, P.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Mersereau, K.

K. Mersereau, C. R. Nijander, A. Y. Feldblum, W. P. Townsend, “Fabrication of fused silica microlens arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia3.

Mersereau, K. O.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Miller, J. M.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Morgan, R. A.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Morgan, “Dynamic optical switching of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2631–2633 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Walker, R. L. Morrison, “High efficiency even-numbered spot array generators,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 188.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Design issues for beam array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 250–253.

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering: Proceedings of OE/Midwest ’90, M. K. Dubiel, H. E. Eppinger, R. E. Gillespie, R. P. Guzik, J. E. Pearson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1396, 568–574 (1990).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, “Computer generated holograms for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 96.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

Nijander, C. R.

K. Mersereau, C. R. Nijander, A. Y. Feldblum, W. P. Townsend, “Fabrication of fused silica microlens arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia3.

Novotny, R. A.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Prise, M. E.

Proudley, G. M.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Redmond, I. R.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Restall, E. J.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Richards, G. W.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

Robertson, B.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Sasian, J. M.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

Shirai, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “A new free-space switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” presented at the ICO Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Minsk, Byelorus, 29 June–July 1992.

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

Smith, S. D.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Snowdon, J. F.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Stace, C.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Tagizadeh, M. R.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect device cellular logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, “Computer generated holograms for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 96.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

Townsend, W. P.

K. Mersereau, C. R. Nijander, A. Y. Feldblum, W. P. Townsend, “Fabrication of fused silica microlens arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia3.

Wakelin, S.

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect device cellular logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wakelin, “Design and construction of a free-space digital optical information processor,” Ph.D. dissertation (HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1992), p. 87.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Walker, A. C.

A. C. Walker, “Application of bistable optical logic gate arrays to all-optical digital parallel processing,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1578–1585 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Walker, S. J.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Walker, R. L. Morrison, “High efficiency even-numbered spot array generators,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 188.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Design issues for beam array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 250–253.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, “Computer generated holograms for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 96.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

Webb, R.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Wherrett, B. S.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

White, H. J.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

Wilson, R. A.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

Wojcik, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

Woodward, T. K.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart pixel receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “A new free-space switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” presented at the ICO Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Minsk, Byelorus, 29 June–July 1992.

Appl. Opt.

A. C. Walker, “Application of bistable optical logic gate arrays to all-optical digital parallel processing,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1578–1585 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetrical self-electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using S-SEED’s,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, “Design of a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect device cellular logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1850–1862 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, R. L. Morrison, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Shuffle-equivalent interconnection topologies based on computer-generated binary-phase gratings, Appl. Opt. 33, 1405–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. D. Boyd, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. A. Morgan, “Dynamic optical switching of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2631–2633 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, “Parallel interconnection of two 64 × 32 symmetric self electro-optic effect device arrays,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1869–1871 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–677 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, J. R. Erickson, “Architectural issues related to the optical implementation of an EGS network based on embedded control,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S415–S442 (1992); T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, A. L.Lentine Lentine, F. B. McCormick, H. S. Hinton, S. J. Hinterlong, “A complexity analysis of smart pixel switching nodes for photonic extended generalized shuffle switching networks,” J. Quantum Electron. 29, 619–634 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “Photonic switching nodes based on self electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S443–S464 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. L. Lentine, T. J. Cloonan, H. S. Hinton, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, L. E. Smith, G. D. Boyd, T. K. Woodward, “4 × 4 arrays of FET-SEED embedded control 2 × 1 switching nodes,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), paper PD1.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Extended generalized shuffle network architectures for free-space photonic switching,” in Photonic Switching, H. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds., Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 43–47.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, A. L. Lentine, J. L. Brubaker, R. J. Crisci, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, “Diffractive optics in a free-space digital optic system,” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Applications, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 28–30.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Design issues for beam array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 250–253.

A. C. Walker, R. G. A. Craig, D. J. McKnight, I. R. Redmond, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, E. J. Restall, R. A. Wilson, S. Wakelin, N. McArdle, P. Meredith, J. M. Miller, G. Mackinnon, M. R. Taghizadeh, S. D. Smith, B. S. Wherrett, “Design and construction of a programmable optical 16 × 16 array processor,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 199–202.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, “A new free-space switching network based on cascaded beam shifters,” presented at the ICO Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, Minsk, Byelorus, 29 June–July 1992.

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Cascaded operation of two 128-pixel FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 7 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1993), pp. 222–225.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, H. S. Hinton, “5-stage embedded-control EGS network using FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Photonics in Switching, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 81–84.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1533, 97–114 (1991).

F. B. McCormick, J. M. Sasian, R. J. Crisci, R. L. Morrison, F. A. P. Tooley, E. Kerbis, “Fabrication and testing issues in free-space digital optical switching and computing,” in International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, J. Tsujiuchi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1720, 553–572 (1992).

J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, T. J. Cloonan, M. G. Beckman, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Frequency control, modulation, and packaging of an SDL (100 mW) laser diode,” in Optical Design for Photonics, Vol. 9 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 167–170.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching fabric,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

S. L. Walker, R. L. Morrison, “High efficiency even-numbered spot array generators,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 188.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. A. P. Tooley, F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, “Computer generated holograms for free-space digital optics,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 96.

N. Basavanhally, “Opto-mechanical alignment and assembly of 2D-array components,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia4.

F. B. McCormick, “Optomechanics of smart pixel systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE LEOD Summer Topical Meeting on Smart Pixels (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 67–68.

H. J. White, N. A. Brownjohn, C. Stace, G. M. Proudley, A. C. Walker, M. R. Tagizadeh, B. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, M. Birch, “Practical demonstration of a free-space optical crossbar switch,” in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 16 of OSA Proceedings Series, J. W. Goodman, R. C. Alferness, eds., (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 129–132.

K. Mersereau, C. R. Nijander, A. Y. Feldblum, W. P. Townsend, “Fabrication of fused silica microlens arrays,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Princeton Section Sarnoff Symposium (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), paper Ia3.

S. Wakelin, “Design and construction of a free-space digital optical information processor,” Ph.D. dissertation (HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1992), p. 87.

V. N. Majahan, ed., Aberration Theory Made Simple, Vol. TT06 of the Tutorial Texts Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1991), pp. 126–130.

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering: Proceedings of OE/Midwest ’90, M. K. Dubiel, H. E. Eppinger, R. E. Gillespie, R. P. Guzik, J. E. Pearson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1396, 568–574 (1990).

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, T. K. Woodward, “Optical energy considerations for diode-clamped smart pixel receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System architecture: (a) architectural schematic of the prototype 3-D extended generalized shuffle network with banyan interconnections, (b) example data stream showing the control data fields embedded within the data stream.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical implementation of the banyan interconnection by the use of a Fourier computer-generated hologram (CGH): (a) optical schematic, (b) resultant useful (solid) and blocked (dashed) interconnections.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FET-SEED smart-pixel switching nodes: (a) electrical schematic of the FET-SEED node, (b) photomicrograph of a section of the 4 × 4 node array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured output signals of a single node: (a) three signals without signal retiming (cw power supply beams), (b) 16 overlapped signals with signal retiming (clocked power supply beams).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

System optical hardware functional block diagram. SM, single mode; MM, multimode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical schematic and path of light flow for stages 1 through 5. PBS’s, polarizing beam splitters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pupil-division and polarization multiplexing beam combination: (a) optical schematic, (b) view along the +z axis showing the placement of I/O pupils within the objective lens entrance pupil.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Unfolded optical path diagrams: (a) stages 1–5, (b) filter input section.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical path difference plots for the path from laser i to FET-SEED i +1, which show the wave-front aberration accumulation and pupil usage for three image field points (array center and two corners).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Encircled energy plots for the three image field points (array center and two corners).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Laser unit electrical and spectral characterization test set results.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spot patterns required at different image planes within the system: (a) input fiber bundle, (b) reference laser at FET-SEED1, (c) signal arrays after BPG1, (d) output fiber bundle, (e) power supply laser at FET-SEED1,2, (f) power supply laser at FET-SEED3, (g) power supply laser at FET-SEED4,5.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Optical schematic for system input section.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Photograph of the system: laser units are to the left, FET-SEED’s are on the right, and the input fiber bundle is in front.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Computer-aided design mechanical drawing for the system optomechanical package.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Through-focus alignment tolerance plots showing power coupling into a 7 μm × 7 μm detector as a function of lateral and longitudinal misalignment for three image field points.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Overlapped sampling oscilloscope traces for 15 outputs of the five-stage system operating at 50 Mbits/s.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Sampling oscilloscope traces for all 16 outputs of the first 2 stages (bit pattern 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1) of the system operating at 155 Mbits/s.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Optical power uniformity measurements of beam arrays (bar and gray-scale plots): (a) after MPG2, (b) after PBS1 and the objective lens of stage 3 after reflection from FET-SEED2 at zero bias.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ S = 2 λ f P ,
δ x = δ z tan ( θ f seed ) ,
θ f seed = tan - 1 ( 3 / 15.6 ) 11 ° .

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