Abstract

A thin-film reflecting interference filter has been designed and constructed for the purpose of suppressing grating harmonics when monochromatizing synchrotron radiation. It consists of a layer of Si evaporated onto a substrate and makes use of interference between wave fronts reflected from the layer–substrate and vacuum–layer interfaces to suppress higher harmonics. The filter has proved useful over the fundamental wavelength range of 400–1200 Å (~30–10 eV), maintaining a rejection ratio of fundamental to second harmonic exceeding 60. Calculations and measurements are presented, and the reflecting interference filter is compared with a critical-angle mirror used for the same purpose.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Howells, C. Norris, G. P. Williams, “Synchrotron spectroscopy: a normal incidence monochromator and an approach to order-sorting problems,” J. Phys. E. 10, 259–263 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. B. Saloman, “Unfolding first and second order diffracted radiation when using synchrotron radiation sources: a technique,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1391–1394 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. S. Gluskin, E. M. Trakhtenberg, A. S. Vinogradov, “A simple system of the short-wave synchrotron radiation prevention in the 30 Å to 180 Å range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 152, 133–134 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” Phys. Thin Films 1, 69–121 (1963).
  14. J. A. Prins, “Die Reflexion von Rontgenstrahlen an absorbierenden idealen Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 63, 477–493 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Miller, “A simplification of Prins’ formula for diffraction of x rays by a perfect crystal,” Phys. Rev. 47, 209–212 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985); Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1991).

1990 (2)

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

E. S. Gluskin, E. M. Trakhtenberg, A. S. Vinogradov, “A simple system of the short-wave synchrotron radiation prevention in the 30 Å to 180 Å range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 152, 133–134 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. R. Howells, C. Norris, G. P. Williams, “Synchrotron spectroscopy: a normal incidence monochromator and an approach to order-sorting problems,” J. Phys. E. 10, 259–263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1963 (1)

P. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” Phys. Thin Films 1, 69–121 (1963).

1935 (1)

F. Miller, “A simplification of Prins’ formula for diffraction of x rays by a perfect crystal,” Phys. Rev. 47, 209–212 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

J. A. Prins, “Die Reflexion von Rontgenstrahlen an absorbierenden idealen Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 63, 477–493 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Barth, J.

J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Belakhovsky, M.

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berning, P.

P. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” Phys. Thin Films 1, 69–121 (1963).

Chabal, Y. J.

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, F.

J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gluskin, E. S.

E. S. Gluskin, E. M. Trakhtenberg, A. S. Vinogradov, “A simple system of the short-wave synchrotron radiation prevention in the 30 Å to 180 Å range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 152, 133–134 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, K.

I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, G. S.

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Himpsel, F. J.

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, Y.

I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, C. Norris, G. P. Williams, “Synchrotron spectroscopy: a normal incidence monochromator and an approach to order-sorting problems,” J. Phys. E. 10, 259–263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kabler, M. N.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kirkland, J. P.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, C.

J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Manceau, A.

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McLean, A. B.

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, F.

F. Miller, “A simplification of Prins’ formula for diffraction of x rays by a perfect crystal,” Phys. Rev. 47, 209–212 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Momose, A.

I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Norman, D.

M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Norris, C.

M. R. Howells, C. Norris, G. P. Williams, “Synchrotron spectroscopy: a normal incidence monochromator and an approach to order-sorting problems,” J. Phys. E. 10, 259–263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Petiau, J.

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prins, J. A.

J. A. Prins, “Die Reflexion von Rontgenstrahlen an absorbierenden idealen Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 63, 477–493 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Raghavachari, K.

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, G.

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “Higher-order suppression in an on-blaze plane-grating monochromator,” Appl. Opt. 23, 293–299 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rivallant, R.

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sainctavit, P.

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saloman, E. B.

Santoni, A.

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-May, J.

J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Terminello, L. J.

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trakhtenberg, E. M.

E. S. Gluskin, E. M. Trakhtenberg, A. S. Vinogradov, “A simple system of the short-wave synchrotron radiation prevention in the 30 Å to 180 Å range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 152, 133–134 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Trucks, G. W.

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. S.

E. S. Gluskin, E. M. Trakhtenberg, A. S. Vinogradov, “A simple system of the short-wave synchrotron radiation prevention in the 30 Å to 180 Å range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 152, 133–134 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Waki, I.

I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
[CrossRef]

West, J. B.

M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. P.

M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, C. Norris, G. P. Williams, “Synchrotron spectroscopy: a normal incidence monochromator and an approach to order-sorting problems,” J. Phys. E. 10, 259–263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. T.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E. (2)

M. R. Howells, D. Norman, G. P. Williams, J. B. West, “A grazing incidence monochromator for synchrotron radiation,” J. Phys. E. 11, 199–202 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, C. Norris, G. P. Williams, “Synchrotron spectroscopy: a normal incidence monochromator and an approach to order-sorting problems,” J. Phys. E. 10, 259–263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (3)

J. Barth, F. Gerken, C. Kunz, J. Schmidt-May, “Grazing incidence monochromator flipper,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 307–312 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Gluskin, E. M. Trakhtenberg, A. S. Vinogradov, “A simple system of the short-wave synchrotron radiation prevention in the 30 Å to 180 Å range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 152, 133–134 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (2)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Sainctavit, J. Petiau, A. Manceau, R. Rivallant, M. Belakhovsky, G. Renaud, “A two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 273, 423–428 (1988); “Two mirror device for harmonic rejection,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2027–2029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. Miller, “A simplification of Prins’ formula for diffraction of x rays by a perfect crystal,” Phys. Rev. 47, 209–212 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Thin Films (1)

P. Berning, “Theory and calculations of optical thin films,” Phys. Thin Films 1, 69–121 (1963).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. Waki, Y. Hirai, A. Momose, K. Hayakawa, “Higher-harmonics suppressor for soft x rays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2072–2075 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Terminello, A. B. McLean, A. Santoni, E. Spiller, F. J. Himpsel, “Low pass filter for soft x-ray monochromators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1626–1628 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

J. A. Prins, “Die Reflexion von Rontgenstrahlen an absorbierenden idealen Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 63, 477–493 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985); Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated reflectance versus angle of incidence at two wavelengths, 620 and 310 Å, of a Si film 600 Å thick on a SiO2 substrate. The film is overcoated with 30 Å of oxide. The solid curves are the s component, and the dashed curves are the p component.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectance versus wavelength of the RIF of Fig. 1. The angle of incidence is 57°. Note that the s component is larger than the p component except at ~ 310 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured reflectance scans of the experimental RIF, designed after Fig. 1, showing how the 3/2-order interference minimum tunes with the angle of incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numbers in the upper part of the figure show calculated angular locations in terms of the cosine of the angle of incidence of the half-wave order minima (λ/2, 3λ/2, 5λ/2, etc.) as a function of wavelength. The dashed line represents the calculated location of the second grating harmonic for a 600-groove/mm grating. The two curves in the lower portion of the figure are experimental values. The filled circles are the values at the 3/2-order minimum, and the open squares are the values at the angle corresponding to the dashed line. Lines between the data points are provided to aid the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured performance of the RIF and the CAM. At each photon energy hν1 the angle of incidence was adjusted, as given in the top axis, to the value it would have if the suppressor were used as a replacement for one of the pair of gratings in the GCM. The 3/2-order interference minimum of the RIF closely tracked hν2 until the upturn in reflectance for hν2 seen for hν1 was larger than ~ 28 eV. The solid curves are meant to aid the eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the measured performance between the RIF and CAM in terms of the rejection ratio (fundamental wavelength to second grating harmonic) and the figure of merit defined in the text. Lines guide the eye. The top axis is explained in Fig. 5.

Metrics