Abstract

A novel compact spectrograph, based on double diffraction by a strip-shaped grating at a grazing angle combined with a tuning mirror, is theoretically discussed. In this configuration the emerging light illuminates a large number of grooves, leading to high spectral resolution. It is shown that with large f-number optics, using a detector array, one may obtain high resolution in spite of the compact spectrograph structure. At grazing incidence the transmission and dispersion of the spectrograph depend strongly on wavelength. The grating’s low efficiency and the large f-number may be compensated for by an efficient data acquisition, which may be attained with a detector array. An advantage of the geometry is that most of the original beam may be obtained as a collimated output through the zero-order reflection from the fixed grating.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Shoshan, N. N. Danon, U. P. Oppenheim, “Narrowband operaton of a pulsed dye laser without intracavity beam expander,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4495–4497 (1977); M. G. Littman, “Single-mode operation of grazing-incidence pulsed dye lasers,” Opt. Lett. 3, 138–141 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. G. Littman, H. J. Metcalf, “Spectrally narrow pulsed dye laser without beam expander,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2224–2227 (1978); K. W. Kangas, D. D. Lowenthal, C. H. Mullen, “Single-longitudinal-mode, tunable, pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 14, 21–23 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Hulthen, E. Lind, “Diffraction gratings and the plane mirror,” Ark. Fys. 2(24), 253–270 (1950).
  4. A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, L. Droppleman, “Optimizaton of the Czerny–Turner spectrometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 879–887 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. B. Mashev, E. K. Popov, E. G. Loewen, “Optimization of the grating efficiency in grazing incidence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4738–4741 (1987); L. B. Mashev, E. K. Popov, E. G. Loewen, “Total absorption of light by sinusoidal grating near grazing incidence,” Appl. Opt. 27, 152–154 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

I. Shoshan, N. N. Danon, U. P. Oppenheim, “Narrowband operaton of a pulsed dye laser without intracavity beam expander,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4495–4497 (1977); M. G. Littman, “Single-mode operation of grazing-incidence pulsed dye lasers,” Opt. Lett. 3, 138–141 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

1950 (1)

E. Hulthen, E. Lind, “Diffraction gratings and the plane mirror,” Ark. Fys. 2(24), 253–270 (1950).

Danon, N. N.

I. Shoshan, N. N. Danon, U. P. Oppenheim, “Narrowband operaton of a pulsed dye laser without intracavity beam expander,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4495–4497 (1977); M. G. Littman, “Single-mode operation of grazing-incidence pulsed dye lasers,” Opt. Lett. 3, 138–141 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Droppleman, L.

Hulthen, E.

E. Hulthen, E. Lind, “Diffraction gratings and the plane mirror,” Ark. Fys. 2(24), 253–270 (1950).

Lind, E.

E. Hulthen, E. Lind, “Diffraction gratings and the plane mirror,” Ark. Fys. 2(24), 253–270 (1950).

Littman, M. G.

Loewen, E. G.

Mashev, L. B.

Megill, L. R.

Metcalf, H. J.

Oppenheim, U. P.

I. Shoshan, N. N. Danon, U. P. Oppenheim, “Narrowband operaton of a pulsed dye laser without intracavity beam expander,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4495–4497 (1977); M. G. Littman, “Single-mode operation of grazing-incidence pulsed dye lasers,” Opt. Lett. 3, 138–141 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E. K.

Shafer, A. B.

Shoshan, I.

I. Shoshan, N. N. Danon, U. P. Oppenheim, “Narrowband operaton of a pulsed dye laser without intracavity beam expander,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4495–4497 (1977); M. G. Littman, “Single-mode operation of grazing-incidence pulsed dye lasers,” Opt. Lett. 3, 138–141 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic description of a basic grazing-incidence spectrograph geometry. The flat tuning mirror, MT, causes the beam to be diffracted a second time at the grating. A beam with λ > λ GI is shown by a dashed line. (b) Experimental results demonstrating the resolved spectrum of the equally spaced longitudinal modes of a diode laser centered at ~ 820 nm obtained from an 1800-groove/mm grating at a grazing-incidence angle, as photographed directly from a screen [see (a)]. Note the high angular dispersion and the dispersion nonlinearity with wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular dispersion of an 1800-groove/mm grating as a function of wavelength, as calculated for a grating at grazing-incidence angle (θ i = 87°) in combination with a flat mirror [see Fig. 1(a)]. Note that the angle difference [θ(λ) − θ(λ GI )] versus [λ − λ GI ] is independent of the spectrograph wavelength setting λ GI .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic top view of a grazing-incidence spectrograph: SM, concave mirror; MT, flat mirror; M, folding mirror. The angle of incidence upon the strip-shaped grating was exaggerated for clarity. DA marks the location of a diode-array detector above (or next to) the input slit.

Equations (6)

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λ / δ λ R = ( π / 4 ) m N ,
δ λ D P = 2 δ λ R ,
( d θ / d λ ) δ λ D L = ( 2 P x ) ,
m λ = d ( sin θ i + sin θ r ) ,
( d θ / d λ ) G I = 2 m / ( d cos θ i ) .
f - number π P x / 2 λ .

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