Abstract

A novel technique to measure the two-dimensional (2-D) thickness profile of a nonuniform, thin film, from several nanometers to several micrometers, in a steady state as well as in a transient state has been developed and tested. Image scanning ellipsometry (ISE) is a full-field imaging technique that one can use to study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE and a demonstration of its use.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. V. Derjaguin, “A theory of capillary condensation in the pores of sorbents and of other capillary phenomena taking into account the disjoining action of polymolecular liquid films,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 12, 181–200 (1940).
  2. I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii, “The general theory of van der Waals forces,” Ad. Phys. 10, 165–209 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Potash, P. C. Wayner, “Evaporation from a two-dimensional extended meniscus,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1851 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Miller, E. J. Ruckenstein, “The origin of flow during wetting of solids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 48, 368 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Chen, J. C. Slattery, “Effects of London–van der Waals forces on the thinning of dimpled liquid film as a small drop or bubble approaches a horizontal solid plate,” AIChE J. 28, 955 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. deGennes, “Wetting: statics and dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 827–863 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Bankoff, “Dynamics and stability of thin heated films,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 112, 538–546 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. C. Wayner, “The effect of interfacial mass transport on flow in their liquid films,” Colloids Surfaces 52, 71–84 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. V. Derjaguin, Z. M. Zorin, “Optical study of the adsorption and surface condensation of vapors in the vicinity of saturation on a smooth surface,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Surface Activity, J. H. Schulman, ed. (Butterworth, London, 1957), Vol. 2, pp. 145–152.
  10. W. D. Bascom, R. L. Cottington, C. R. Singleterry, “Dynamic surface phenomena in the spontaneous spreading of oils on solids,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, R. E. Gould, ed., Adv. Chem. Ser. 43, 355–379 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. J. Ingram, “Wetting of silica by n-alkanes,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 70, 868–876 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. J. Renk, P. C. Wayner, “An evaporating ethanol meniscus,” J. Heat Transfer 101, 55–62 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Cook, C. Y. Tung, P. C. Wayner, “Use of scanning microphotometer to determine the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of the contact line region,” J. Heat Transfer 103, 325–330 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Beaglehole, “The wetting liquid–vapor interface of a binary liquid mixture,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1469–1473 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. G. Troung, P. C. Wayner, “Effects of capillary and van der Waals dispersion forces on the equilibrium profile of a wetting liquid: theory and experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180–4188 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Sujanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of transport process with phase change in near equilibrium thin liquid films,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 472–488 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. DasGupta, J. Schonberg, P. C. Wayner, “Investigation of an evaporating extended meniscus based on the augmented Young–Laplace equation,” J. Heat Transfer 115, 201–208 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. B. Hurley, I. Kaufman, “Noncontacting microstrip monitor for liquid film thickness,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2462–2465 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. F. Klausner, L. Z. Zeng, D. M. Bernhard, “Development of a film thickness probe using capacitance for asymmetrical two-phase flow with heat addition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 3152–3174 (1992).
  20. C. M. Mat, M. R. Lorenz, V. J. Novotny, “Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 7550–7555 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Monde, “Measurement of liquid film thickness during passage of bubbles in a vertical rectangular channel,” J. Heat Transfer 112, 255–258 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Mitsuya, S. Imazeki, “Metal coating of organic thin films for thickness measurements by a stylus method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2466–2468 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. H. Steel, Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1983).
  24. G. E. Sommargren, “Optical heterodyne profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610–618 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. J. Down, W. H. McGiven, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical system for measuring the profiles of super-smooth surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211–215 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. DasGupta, P. C. Wayner, “Use of image processing to study an evaporating extended R113 meniscus,” in Imaging in Transport Processes, S. Sideman, K. Hijikata, eds. (Begell, New York, 1993), Chap. 31, pp. 367–377.
  28. S. DasGupta, M. SuJanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of an evaporating liquid film controlled by a capillary feeder,” in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, J. F. Keffer, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), pp. 361–368.
  29. S. DasGupta, I. Y. Kim, P. C. Wayner, “Interfacial phenomena, evaporation, and stress in a constrained capillary system,” in Proceedings of the National Heat Transfer Conference, (1992).
  30. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989), paperback edition.
  31. M. K. Smit, J. W. Verhoof, “Accuracy analysis in multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 189, 193–203 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. L. Rhykerd, J. H. Clushman, P. F. Low, “Application of multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry to the study of thin fluid films adsorbed on surfaces,” Langmuir 7, 2219–2229 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. H. Weedon, S. W. McKnight, A. J. Devaney, “Selection of optimal angles for inversion of multiple-angle ellipsometry and reflectometry equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1881–1891 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, “Roughness measurements of Si and Al by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3210–3220 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. H. W. Dinges, B. Kempf, H. Burkhard, “Determination of sputter damage on InP by MAI ellipsometry,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 77–81 (July1990).
    [CrossRef]
  36. F. Ferrien, J. H. Lecat, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2203–2208 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. H. W. Verbruggen, J. M. M. de Nijs, “Analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 201–214 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  38. G. Zalczer, V. Gurfein, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry near the Brewster angle on transparent substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2132–2134 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Fang, B. Drévillon, “In situ spectroellipsometry study of the nucleation and growth of microcrystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4894–4898 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  40. G. E. Jellison, “Use of the biased estimator in the interpretation of spectroscopic ellipsometry data,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3354–3360 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. M. Fried, T. Lohner, “Nondestructive determination of damage depth profiles in ion-implanted semiconductors by spectroscopic ellipsollietry using different optical models,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2835–2843 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  42. N. V. Nguyen, B. S. Pudiner, I. An, R. W. Collins, “Error correction for calibration and data reduction in rotating-polarizer ellipsometry: applications to a novel multichannel ellipsometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 919–931 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  43. G. E. Jellison, “Two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulation ellipsometry: a new technique for the analysis of thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 206, 294–299 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  44. J. T. Zettler, T. Dittrich, L. Schrottke, “Modulation ellipsometry—a new technique for the characterization of semiconductor materials and complex semiconductor structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K91–K95 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  45. L. M. Blinov, D. B. Subachyus, S. V. Yablonsky, “The hydrodynamics of surface layers of nematic liquid crystal studies by modulation ellipsometry,” J. Phys. I (Paris) 1, 459–469 (1991).
  46. R. M. A. Azzam, “Transmission ellipsometry on transparent unbacked or embedded thin films with application to soap films in air,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2801–2806 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. L. M. Folan, “Characterization of the accretion of material by microparticles using resonant ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2066–2071 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. I. Ohlidal, M. Libezny, “Immersion ellipsometry of semiconductor surfaces,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 46–53 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  49. A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  50. C. Lin, C. Chou, K. Chang, “Real time interferometric ellipsometry with optical heterodyne and phase lock-in techniques,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5159–5162 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. D. Beaglehole, “Performance of a microscopic imaging ellipsometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2557–2559 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  52. D. Beaglehole, “Profiles of the precursor of spreading drops of siloxane oil on glass, fused silica, and mica,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 893–899 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  53. R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: theory, system, design, and feasibility demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4644–4671 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  54. R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: proof of concept test results,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 1033–1034 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  55. R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Current accuracy limits of dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” in Precision Instrument Design, T. C. Bristow, A. E. Hatheway, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1036, 125–134 (1988).
  56. R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Nondestructive mapping of surface film parameter,” in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson, D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 8B, pp. 1219–1226.
  57. R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Absolute and random error analysis of the dynamic imaging microellipsometry technique,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3187–3198 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. R. F. Cohn, “Evaluation of alternative algorithms for dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 304–315 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  60. R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  61. D. I. Driscoll, R. L. Schmitt, W. H. Stevenson, “Thin flowing liquid film thickness measurement by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Fluids Eng. 114, 107–112 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  62. J. B. Yang, Y. L. Oi, C. W. Chen, “Measurement of oil film thickness between W-N helical gear tooth profiles using laser transmission method,” Trans. ASME 112, 708–711 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  63. W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 43–51 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

1993

S. DasGupta, J. Schonberg, P. C. Wayner, “Investigation of an evaporating extended meniscus based on the augmented Young–Laplace equation,” J. Heat Transfer 115, 201–208 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. F. Klausner, L. Z. Zeng, D. M. Bernhard, “Development of a film thickness probe using capacitance for asymmetrical two-phase flow with heat addition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 3152–3174 (1992).

M. H. W. Verbruggen, J. M. M. de Nijs, “Analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 201–214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Zalczer, V. Gurfein, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry near the Brewster angle on transparent substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2132–2134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fried, T. Lohner, “Nondestructive determination of damage depth profiles in ion-implanted semiconductors by spectroscopic ellipsollietry using different optical models,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2835–2843 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Driscoll, R. L. Schmitt, W. H. Stevenson, “Thin flowing liquid film thickness measurement by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Fluids Eng. 114, 107–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Folan, “Characterization of the accretion of material by microparticles using resonant ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2066–2071 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

G. E. Jellison, “Use of the biased estimator in the interpretation of spectroscopic ellipsometry data,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3354–3360 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. A. Azzam, “Transmission ellipsometry on transparent unbacked or embedded thin films with application to soap films in air,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2801–2806 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, “Roughness measurements of Si and Al by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3210–3220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Blinov, D. B. Subachyus, S. V. Yablonsky, “The hydrodynamics of surface layers of nematic liquid crystal studies by modulation ellipsometry,” J. Phys. I (Paris) 1, 459–469 (1991).

N. V. Nguyen, B. S. Pudiner, I. An, R. W. Collins, “Error correction for calibration and data reduction in rotating-polarizer ellipsometry: applications to a novel multichannel ellipsometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 919–931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Weedon, S. W. McKnight, A. J. Devaney, “Selection of optimal angles for inversion of multiple-angle ellipsometry and reflectometry equations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1881–1891 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Fang, B. Drévillon, “In situ spectroellipsometry study of the nucleation and growth of microcrystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4894–4898 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, “Two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulation ellipsometry: a new technique for the analysis of thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 206, 294–299 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Rhykerd, J. H. Clushman, P. F. Low, “Application of multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry to the study of thin fluid films adsorbed on surfaces,” Langmuir 7, 2219–2229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sujanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of transport process with phase change in near equilibrium thin liquid films,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 472–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wayner, “The effect of interfacial mass transport on flow in their liquid films,” Colloids Surfaces 52, 71–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. B. Hurley, I. Kaufman, “Noncontacting microstrip monitor for liquid film thickness,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2462–2465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Bankoff, “Dynamics and stability of thin heated films,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 112, 538–546 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Dinges, B. Kempf, H. Burkhard, “Determination of sputter damage on InP by MAI ellipsometry,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 77–81 (July1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrien, J. H. Lecat, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2203–2208 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit, J. W. Verhoof, “Accuracy analysis in multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 189, 193–203 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Monde, “Measurement of liquid film thickness during passage of bubbles in a vertical rectangular channel,” J. Heat Transfer 112, 255–258 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitsuya, S. Imazeki, “Metal coating of organic thin films for thickness measurements by a stylus method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2466–2468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Zettler, T. Dittrich, L. Schrottke, “Modulation ellipsometry—a new technique for the characterization of semiconductor materials and complex semiconductor structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K91–K95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Ohlidal, M. Libezny, “Immersion ellipsometry of semiconductor surfaces,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 46–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Yang, Y. L. Oi, C. W. Chen, “Measurement of oil film thickness between W-N helical gear tooth profiles using laser transmission method,” Trans. ASME 112, 708–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, “Evaluation of alternative algorithms for dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 304–315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, C. Chou, K. Chang, “Real time interferometric ellipsometry with optical heterodyne and phase lock-in techniques,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5159–5162 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Absolute and random error analysis of the dynamic imaging microellipsometry technique,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3187–3198 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Beaglehole, “Profiles of the precursor of spreading drops of siloxane oil on glass, fused silica, and mica,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 893–899 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Mat, M. R. Lorenz, V. J. Novotny, “Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 7550–7555 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Beaglehole, “Performance of a microscopic imaging ellipsometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2557–2559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: theory, system, design, and feasibility demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4644–4671 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: proof of concept test results,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 1033–1034 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. G. Troung, P. C. Wayner, “Effects of capillary and van der Waals dispersion forces on the equilibrium profile of a wetting liquid: theory and experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180–4188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. G. deGennes, “Wetting: statics and dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 827–863 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Down, W. H. McGiven, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical system for measuring the profiles of super-smooth surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. J. Beaglehole, “The wetting liquid–vapor interface of a binary liquid mixture,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1469–1473 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. D. Chen, J. C. Slattery, “Effects of London–van der Waals forces on the thinning of dimpled liquid film as a small drop or bubble approaches a horizontal solid plate,” AIChE J. 28, 955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. Cook, C. Y. Tung, P. C. Wayner, “Use of scanning microphotometer to determine the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of the contact line region,” J. Heat Transfer 103, 325–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Sommargren, “Optical heterodyne profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610–618 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

F. J. Renk, P. C. Wayner, “An evaporating ethanol meniscus,” J. Heat Transfer 101, 55–62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974

B. J. Ingram, “Wetting of silica by n-alkanes,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 70, 868–876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Miller, E. J. Ruckenstein, “The origin of flow during wetting of solids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 48, 368 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

M. Potash, P. C. Wayner, “Evaporation from a two-dimensional extended meniscus,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1851 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii, “The general theory of van der Waals forces,” Ad. Phys. 10, 165–209 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1940

B. V. Derjaguin, “A theory of capillary condensation in the pores of sorbents and of other capillary phenomena taking into account the disjoining action of polymolecular liquid films,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 12, 181–200 (1940).

An, I.

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bankoff, S. G.

S. G. Bankoff, “Dynamics and stability of thin heated films,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 112, 538–546 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bascom, W. D.

W. D. Bascom, R. L. Cottington, C. R. Singleterry, “Dynamic surface phenomena in the spontaneous spreading of oils on solids,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, R. E. Gould, ed., Adv. Chem. Ser. 43, 355–379 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989), paperback edition.

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole, “Profiles of the precursor of spreading drops of siloxane oil on glass, fused silica, and mica,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 893–899 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Beaglehole, “Performance of a microscopic imaging ellipsometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2557–2559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beaglehole, D. J.

D. J. Beaglehole, “The wetting liquid–vapor interface of a binary liquid mixture,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1469–1473 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, D. M.

J. F. Klausner, L. Z. Zeng, D. M. Bernhard, “Development of a film thickness probe using capacitance for asymmetrical two-phase flow with heat addition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 3152–3174 (1992).

Blanco, J. R.

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, D. B. Subachyus, S. V. Yablonsky, “The hydrodynamics of surface layers of nematic liquid crystal studies by modulation ellipsometry,” J. Phys. I (Paris) 1, 459–469 (1991).

Borghesi, A.

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, H.

H. W. Dinges, B. Kempf, H. Burkhard, “Determination of sputter damage on InP by MAI ellipsometry,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 77–81 (July1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K.

Chen, C. W.

J. B. Yang, Y. L. Oi, C. W. Chen, “Measurement of oil film thickness between W-N helical gear tooth profiles using laser transmission method,” Trans. ASME 112, 708–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. D.

J. D. Chen, J. C. Slattery, “Effects of London–van der Waals forces on the thinning of dimpled liquid film as a small drop or bubble approaches a horizontal solid plate,” AIChE J. 28, 955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.

Clushman, J. H.

C. L. Rhykerd, J. H. Clushman, P. F. Low, “Application of multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry to the study of thin fluid films adsorbed on surfaces,” Langmuir 7, 2219–2229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, R. F.

R. F. Cohn, “Evaluation of alternative algorithms for dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 304–315 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Absolute and random error analysis of the dynamic imaging microellipsometry technique,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3187–3198 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: theory, system, design, and feasibility demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4644–4671 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: proof of concept test results,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 1033–1034 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Nondestructive mapping of surface film parameter,” in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson, D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 8B, pp. 1219–1226.

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Current accuracy limits of dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” in Precision Instrument Design, T. C. Bristow, A. E. Hatheway, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1036, 125–134 (1988).

Collins, R. W.

Conrad, E. E.

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R.

R. Cook, C. Y. Tung, P. C. Wayner, “Use of scanning microphotometer to determine the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of the contact line region,” J. Heat Transfer 103, 325–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cottington, R. L.

W. D. Bascom, R. L. Cottington, C. R. Singleterry, “Dynamic surface phenomena in the spontaneous spreading of oils on solids,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, R. E. Gould, ed., Adv. Chem. Ser. 43, 355–379 (1964).
[CrossRef]

DasGupta, S.

S. DasGupta, J. Schonberg, P. C. Wayner, “Investigation of an evaporating extended meniscus based on the augmented Young–Laplace equation,” J. Heat Transfer 115, 201–208 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. DasGupta, M. SuJanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of an evaporating liquid film controlled by a capillary feeder,” in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, J. F. Keffer, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), pp. 361–368.

S. DasGupta, I. Y. Kim, P. C. Wayner, “Interfacial phenomena, evaporation, and stress in a constrained capillary system,” in Proceedings of the National Heat Transfer Conference, (1992).

S. DasGupta, P. C. Wayner, “Use of image processing to study an evaporating extended R113 meniscus,” in Imaging in Transport Processes, S. Sideman, K. Hijikata, eds. (Begell, New York, 1993), Chap. 31, pp. 367–377.

de Nijs, J. M. M.

M. H. W. Verbruggen, J. M. M. de Nijs, “Analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 201–214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

deGennes, P. G.

P. G. deGennes, “Wetting: statics and dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 827–863 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Derjaguin, B. V.

B. V. Derjaguin, “A theory of capillary condensation in the pores of sorbents and of other capillary phenomena taking into account the disjoining action of polymolecular liquid films,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 12, 181–200 (1940).

B. V. Derjaguin, Z. M. Zorin, “Optical study of the adsorption and surface condensation of vapors in the vicinity of saturation on a smooth surface,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Surface Activity, J. H. Schulman, ed. (Butterworth, London, 1957), Vol. 2, pp. 145–152.

Devaney, A. J.

Dinges, H. W.

H. W. Dinges, B. Kempf, H. Burkhard, “Determination of sputter damage on InP by MAI ellipsometry,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 77–81 (July1990).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, T.

J. T. Zettler, T. Dittrich, L. Schrottke, “Modulation ellipsometry—a new technique for the characterization of semiconductor materials and complex semiconductor structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K91–K95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Down, M. J.

M. J. Down, W. H. McGiven, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical system for measuring the profiles of super-smooth surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Drévillon, B.

M. Fang, B. Drévillon, “In situ spectroellipsometry study of the nucleation and growth of microcrystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4894–4898 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, D. I.

D. I. Driscoll, R. L. Schmitt, W. H. Stevenson, “Thin flowing liquid film thickness measurement by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Fluids Eng. 114, 107–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dzyaloshinskii, I. E.

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii, “The general theory of van der Waals forces,” Ad. Phys. 10, 165–209 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Fang, M.

M. Fang, B. Drévillon, “In situ spectroellipsometry study of the nucleation and growth of microcrystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4894–4898 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, H. J.

M. J. Down, W. H. McGiven, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical system for measuring the profiles of super-smooth surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ferrien, F.

F. Ferrien, J. H. Lecat, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2203–2208 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Folan, L. M.

Fried, M.

M. Fried, T. Lohner, “Nondestructive determination of damage depth profiles in ion-implanted semiconductors by spectroscopic ellipsollietry using different optical models,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2835–2843 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. C.

C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gurfein, V.

G. Zalczer, V. Gurfein, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry near the Brewster angle on transparent substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2132–2134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, R. B.

R. B. Hurley, I. Kaufman, “Noncontacting microstrip monitor for liquid film thickness,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2462–2465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Imazeki, S.

M. Mitsuya, S. Imazeki, “Metal coating of organic thin films for thickness measurements by a stylus method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2466–2468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ingram, B. J.

B. J. Ingram, “Wetting of silica by n-alkanes,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 70, 868–876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, “Two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulation ellipsometry: a new technique for the analysis of thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 206, 294–299 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, “Use of the biased estimator in the interpretation of spectroscopic ellipsometry data,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3354–3360 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, I.

R. B. Hurley, I. Kaufman, “Noncontacting microstrip monitor for liquid film thickness,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2462–2465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kempf, B.

H. W. Dinges, B. Kempf, H. Burkhard, “Determination of sputter damage on InP by MAI ellipsometry,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 77–81 (July1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. Y.

S. DasGupta, I. Y. Kim, P. C. Wayner, “Interfacial phenomena, evaporation, and stress in a constrained capillary system,” in Proceedings of the National Heat Transfer Conference, (1992).

Klausner, J. F.

J. F. Klausner, L. Z. Zeng, D. M. Bernhard, “Development of a film thickness probe using capacitance for asymmetrical two-phase flow with heat addition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 3152–3174 (1992).

Knoll, W.

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: proof of concept test results,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 1033–1034 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: theory, system, design, and feasibility demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4644–4671 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lecat, J. H.

F. Ferrien, J. H. Lecat, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2203–2208 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Libezny, M.

I. Ohlidal, M. Libezny, “Immersion ellipsometry of semiconductor surfaces,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 46–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii, “The general theory of van der Waals forces,” Ad. Phys. 10, 165–209 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Lohner, T.

M. Fried, T. Lohner, “Nondestructive determination of damage depth profiles in ion-implanted semiconductors by spectroscopic ellipsollietry using different optical models,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2835–2843 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M. R.

C. M. Mat, M. R. Lorenz, V. J. Novotny, “Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 7550–7555 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Low, P. F.

C. L. Rhykerd, J. H. Clushman, P. F. Low, “Application of multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry to the study of thin fluid films adsorbed on surfaces,” Langmuir 7, 2219–2229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marrbelli, F.

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mat, C. M.

C. M. Mat, M. R. Lorenz, V. J. Novotny, “Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 7550–7555 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McGiven, W. H.

M. J. Down, W. H. McGiven, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical system for measuring the profiles of super-smooth surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, S. W.

McMarr, P. J.

Miller, C. A.

C. A. Miller, E. J. Ruckenstein, “The origin of flow during wetting of solids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 48, 368 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuya, M.

M. Mitsuya, S. Imazeki, “Metal coating of organic thin films for thickness measurements by a stylus method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2466–2468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Monde, M.

M. Monde, “Measurement of liquid film thickness during passage of bubbles in a vertical rectangular channel,” J. Heat Transfer 112, 255–258 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moran, P. J.

C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Motschmann, H.

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nemetz, A.

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. V.

Novotny, V. J.

C. M. Mat, M. R. Lorenz, V. J. Novotny, “Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 7550–7555 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ohlidal, I.

I. Ohlidal, M. Libezny, “Immersion ellipsometry of semiconductor surfaces,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 46–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oi, Y. L.

J. B. Yang, Y. L. Oi, C. W. Chen, “Measurement of oil film thickness between W-N helical gear tooth profiles using laser transmission method,” Trans. ASME 112, 708–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Orendi, H.

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piaggi, A.

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pitaevskii, L. P.

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii, “The general theory of van der Waals forces,” Ad. Phys. 10, 165–209 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pliskin, W. A.

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Potash, M.

M. Potash, P. C. Wayner, “Evaporation from a two-dimensional extended meniscus,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1851 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pudiner, B. S.

Reiter, R.

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Renk, F. J.

F. J. Renk, P. C. Wayner, “An evaporating ethanol meniscus,” J. Heat Transfer 101, 55–62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rhykerd, C. L.

C. L. Rhykerd, J. H. Clushman, P. F. Low, “Application of multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry to the study of thin fluid films adsorbed on surfaces,” Langmuir 7, 2219–2229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Röseler, A.

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ruckenstein, E. J.

C. A. Miller, E. J. Ruckenstein, “The origin of flow during wetting of solids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 48, 368 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, R. L.

D. I. Driscoll, R. L. Schmitt, W. H. Stevenson, “Thin flowing liquid film thickness measurement by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Fluids Eng. 114, 107–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schonberg, J.

S. DasGupta, J. Schonberg, P. C. Wayner, “Investigation of an evaporating extended meniscus based on the augmented Young–Laplace equation,” J. Heat Transfer 115, 201–208 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schrottke, L.

J. T. Zettler, T. Dittrich, L. Schrottke, “Modulation ellipsometry—a new technique for the characterization of semiconductor materials and complex semiconductor structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K91–K95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Singleterry, C. R.

W. D. Bascom, R. L. Cottington, C. R. Singleterry, “Dynamic surface phenomena in the spontaneous spreading of oils on solids,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, R. E. Gould, ed., Adv. Chem. Ser. 43, 355–379 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Slattery, J. C.

J. D. Chen, J. C. Slattery, “Effects of London–van der Waals forces on the thinning of dimpled liquid film as a small drop or bubble approaches a horizontal solid plate,” AIChE J. 28, 955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit, J. W. Verhoof, “Accuracy analysis in multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 189, 193–203 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Steel, W. H.

W. H. Steel, Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1983).

Stevenson, W. H.

D. I. Driscoll, R. L. Schmitt, W. H. Stevenson, “Thin flowing liquid film thickness measurement by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Fluids Eng. 114, 107–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Streinz, C. C.

C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Subachyus, D. B.

L. M. Blinov, D. B. Subachyus, S. V. Yablonsky, “The hydrodynamics of surface layers of nematic liquid crystal studies by modulation ellipsometry,” J. Phys. I (Paris) 1, 459–469 (1991).

Sujanani, M.

M. Sujanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of transport process with phase change in near equilibrium thin liquid films,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 472–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. DasGupta, M. SuJanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of an evaporating liquid film controlled by a capillary feeder,” in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, J. F. Keffer, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), pp. 361–368.

Tirrel, M.

C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Troung, J. G.

J. G. Troung, P. C. Wayner, “Effects of capillary and van der Waals dispersion forces on the equilibrium profile of a wetting liquid: theory and experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180–4188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C. Y.

R. Cook, C. Y. Tung, P. C. Wayner, “Use of scanning microphotometer to determine the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of the contact line region,” J. Heat Transfer 103, 325–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Verbruggen, M. H. W.

M. H. W. Verbruggen, J. M. M. de Nijs, “Analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 201–214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Verhoof, J. W.

M. K. Smit, J. W. Verhoof, “Accuracy analysis in multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 189, 193–203 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J. W.

C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Absolute and random error analysis of the dynamic imaging microellipsometry technique,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3187–3198 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: proof of concept test results,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 1033–1034 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: theory, system, design, and feasibility demonstration,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4644–4671 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Nondestructive mapping of surface film parameter,” in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson, D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 8B, pp. 1219–1226.

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Current accuracy limits of dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” in Precision Instrument Design, T. C. Bristow, A. E. Hatheway, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1036, 125–134 (1988).

Wayner, P. C.

S. DasGupta, J. Schonberg, P. C. Wayner, “Investigation of an evaporating extended meniscus based on the augmented Young–Laplace equation,” J. Heat Transfer 115, 201–208 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Sujanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of transport process with phase change in near equilibrium thin liquid films,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 472–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Wayner, “The effect of interfacial mass transport on flow in their liquid films,” Colloids Surfaces 52, 71–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Troung, P. C. Wayner, “Effects of capillary and van der Waals dispersion forces on the equilibrium profile of a wetting liquid: theory and experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180–4188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Cook, C. Y. Tung, P. C. Wayner, “Use of scanning microphotometer to determine the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of the contact line region,” J. Heat Transfer 103, 325–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Renk, P. C. Wayner, “An evaporating ethanol meniscus,” J. Heat Transfer 101, 55–62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Potash, P. C. Wayner, “Evaporation from a two-dimensional extended meniscus,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1851 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. DasGupta, M. SuJanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of an evaporating liquid film controlled by a capillary feeder,” in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, J. F. Keffer, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), pp. 361–368.

S. DasGupta, P. C. Wayner, “Use of image processing to study an evaporating extended R113 meniscus,” in Imaging in Transport Processes, S. Sideman, K. Hijikata, eds. (Begell, New York, 1993), Chap. 31, pp. 367–377.

S. DasGupta, I. Y. Kim, P. C. Wayner, “Interfacial phenomena, evaporation, and stress in a constrained capillary system,” in Proceedings of the National Heat Transfer Conference, (1992).

Weedon, W. H.

White, H. S.

C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yablonsky, S. V.

L. M. Blinov, D. B. Subachyus, S. V. Yablonsky, “The hydrodynamics of surface layers of nematic liquid crystal studies by modulation ellipsometry,” J. Phys. I (Paris) 1, 459–469 (1991).

Yang, J. B.

J. B. Yang, Y. L. Oi, C. W. Chen, “Measurement of oil film thickness between W-N helical gear tooth profiles using laser transmission method,” Trans. ASME 112, 708–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zalczer, G.

G. Zalczer, V. Gurfein, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry near the Brewster angle on transparent substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2132–2134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L. Z.

J. F. Klausner, L. Z. Zeng, D. M. Bernhard, “Development of a film thickness probe using capacitance for asymmetrical two-phase flow with heat addition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 3152–3174 (1992).

Zettler, J. T.

J. T. Zettler, T. Dittrich, L. Schrottke, “Modulation ellipsometry—a new technique for the characterization of semiconductor materials and complex semiconductor structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K91–K95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zorin, Z. M.

B. V. Derjaguin, Z. M. Zorin, “Optical study of the adsorption and surface condensation of vapors in the vicinity of saturation on a smooth surface,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Surface Activity, J. H. Schulman, ed. (Butterworth, London, 1957), Vol. 2, pp. 145–152.

Acta Physicochim. URSS

B. V. Derjaguin, “A theory of capillary condensation in the pores of sorbents and of other capillary phenomena taking into account the disjoining action of polymolecular liquid films,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 12, 181–200 (1940).

Ad. Phys.

I. E. Dzyaloshinskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii, “The general theory of van der Waals forces,” Ad. Phys. 10, 165–209 (1961).
[CrossRef]

AIChE J.

J. D. Chen, J. C. Slattery, “Effects of London–van der Waals forces on the thinning of dimpled liquid film as a small drop or bubble approaches a horizontal solid plate,” AIChE J. 28, 955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

ASME J. Heat Transfer

S. G. Bankoff, “Dynamics and stability of thin heated films,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 112, 538–546 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surfaces

P. C. Wayner, “The effect of interfacial mass transport on flow in their liquid films,” Colloids Surfaces 52, 71–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

M. H. W. Verbruggen, J. M. M. de Nijs, “Analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 201–214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev.

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 8, 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

M. Potash, P. C. Wayner, “Evaporation from a two-dimensional extended meniscus,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 15, 1851 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Fang, B. Drévillon, “In situ spectroellipsometry study of the nucleation and growth of microcrystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 4894–4898 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Fried, T. Lohner, “Nondestructive determination of damage depth profiles in ion-implanted semiconductors by spectroscopic ellipsollietry using different optical models,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2835–2843 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

C. M. Mat, M. R. Lorenz, V. J. Novotny, “Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films,” J. Chem. Phys. 90, 7550–7555 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Beaglehole, “The wetting liquid–vapor interface of a binary liquid mixture,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1469–1473 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Troung, P. C. Wayner, “Effects of capillary and van der Waals dispersion forces on the equilibrium profile of a wetting liquid: theory and experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180–4188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1

B. J. Ingram, “Wetting of silica by n-alkanes,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 70, 868–876 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

M. Sujanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of transport process with phase change in near equilibrium thin liquid films,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 472–488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Miller, E. J. Ruckenstein, “The origin of flow during wetting of solids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 48, 368 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

F. Ferrien, J. H. Lecat, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry for the characterization of thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2203–2208 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Streinz, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, P. J. Moran, “Analysis of passive film growth by dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 711–715 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, J. Kruger, “Dynamic imaging microellipsometry: proof of concept test results,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 135, 1033–1034 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluids Eng.

D. I. Driscoll, R. L. Schmitt, W. H. Stevenson, “Thin flowing liquid film thickness measurement by laser induced fluorescence,” J. Fluids Eng. 114, 107–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer

M. Monde, “Measurement of liquid film thickness during passage of bubbles in a vertical rectangular channel,” J. Heat Transfer 112, 255–258 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. DasGupta, J. Schonberg, P. C. Wayner, “Investigation of an evaporating extended meniscus based on the augmented Young–Laplace equation,” J. Heat Transfer 115, 201–208 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Renk, P. C. Wayner, “An evaporating ethanol meniscus,” J. Heat Transfer 101, 55–62 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Cook, C. Y. Tung, P. C. Wayner, “Use of scanning microphotometer to determine the evaporative heat transfer characteristics of the contact line region,” J. Heat Transfer 103, 325–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem.

D. Beaglehole, “Profiles of the precursor of spreading drops of siloxane oil on glass, fused silica, and mica,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 893–899 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. I (Paris)

L. M. Blinov, D. B. Subachyus, S. V. Yablonsky, “The hydrodynamics of surface layers of nematic liquid crystal studies by modulation ellipsometry,” J. Phys. I (Paris) 1, 459–469 (1991).

Langmuir

R. Reiter, H. Motschmann, H. Orendi, A. Nemetz, W. Knoll, “Ellipsometric microscopy: imaging monomolecular surfactant layers at the air–water interface,” Langmuir 8, 1784–1788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Rhykerd, J. H. Clushman, P. F. Low, “Application of multiple-angle-of-incidence ellipsometry to the study of thin fluid films adsorbed on surfaces,” Langmuir 7, 2219–2229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento D

A. Röseler, F. Marrbelli, G. Guizzetti, A. Borghesi, A. Piaggi, “Ellipsometry with Fourier transform spectrometer: an application to TaSi2 films,” Nuovo Cimento D 13, 169–176 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

J. T. Zettler, T. Dittrich, L. Schrottke, “Modulation ellipsometry—a new technique for the characterization of semiconductor materials and complex semiconductor structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K91–K95 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng.

M. J. Down, W. H. McGiven, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical system for measuring the profiles of super-smooth surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211–215 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

P. G. deGennes, “Wetting: statics and dynamics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 827–863 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. B. Hurley, I. Kaufman, “Noncontacting microstrip monitor for liquid film thickness,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2462–2465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Klausner, L. Z. Zeng, D. M. Bernhard, “Development of a film thickness probe using capacitance for asymmetrical two-phase flow with heat addition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 3152–3174 (1992).

M. Mitsuya, S. Imazeki, “Metal coating of organic thin films for thickness measurements by a stylus method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2466–2468 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Zalczer, V. Gurfein, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry near the Brewster angle on transparent substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2132–2134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Beaglehole, “Performance of a microscopic imaging ellipsometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2557–2559 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Interface Anal.

I. Ohlidal, M. Libezny, “Immersion ellipsometry of semiconductor surfaces,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 46–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Dinges, B. Kempf, H. Burkhard, “Determination of sputter damage on InP by MAI ellipsometry,” Surf. Interface Anal. 16, 77–81 (July1990).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. K. Smit, J. W. Verhoof, “Accuracy analysis in multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 189, 193–203 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, “Two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulation ellipsometry: a new technique for the analysis of thin SiO2 films,” Thin Solid Films 206, 294–299 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Smith, D. C. Fritz, M. Tirrel, H. S. White, “Phase measurement interferometric microscopy of thin films: analysis of topography, refractive index, and thickness of solvent swollen polystyrene films,” Thin Solid Films 198, 369–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Trans. ASME

J. B. Yang, Y. L. Oi, C. W. Chen, “Measurement of oil film thickness between W-N helical gear tooth profiles using laser transmission method,” Trans. ASME 112, 708–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Current accuracy limits of dynamic imaging microellipsometry,” in Precision Instrument Design, T. C. Bristow, A. E. Hatheway, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1036, 125–134 (1988).

R. F. Cohn, J. W. Wagner, “Nondestructive mapping of surface film parameter,” in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson, D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1989), Vol. 8B, pp. 1219–1226.

S. DasGupta, P. C. Wayner, “Use of image processing to study an evaporating extended R113 meniscus,” in Imaging in Transport Processes, S. Sideman, K. Hijikata, eds. (Begell, New York, 1993), Chap. 31, pp. 367–377.

S. DasGupta, M. SuJanani, P. C. Wayner, “Microcomputer enhanced optical investigation of an evaporating liquid film controlled by a capillary feeder,” in Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, J. F. Keffer, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), pp. 361–368.

S. DasGupta, I. Y. Kim, P. C. Wayner, “Interfacial phenomena, evaporation, and stress in a constrained capillary system,” in Proceedings of the National Heat Transfer Conference, (1992).

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989), paperback edition.

W. H. Steel, Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1983).

B. V. Derjaguin, Z. M. Zorin, “Optical study of the adsorption and surface condensation of vapors in the vicinity of saturation on a smooth surface,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Surface Activity, J. H. Schulman, ed. (Butterworth, London, 1957), Vol. 2, pp. 145–152.

W. D. Bascom, R. L. Cottington, C. R. Singleterry, “Dynamic surface phenomena in the spontaneous spreading of oils on solids,” in Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion, R. E. Gould, ed., Adv. Chem. Ser. 43, 355–379 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated film thickness at the null point versus position for various polarizer settings. The system was a particular ThF4 solid wedge deposited on a Si wafer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic sketch of the ISE.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated film thickness at the null point versus polarizer settings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

One-dimensional location of dark fringes (minimum pixel value) at different polarizer settings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally measured film thickness profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

2-D film thickness profile of standard wedge wafer #1 measured by ISE.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison among different methods for standard wafer #1, where the measured results from the Reynard and from the interferometer are overlaid.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ = tan ( Ψ ) × exp ( i Δ ) ,
δ = λ / [ 2 n F cos ( Φ 2 ) ] ,
δ = λ / 2 [ n F 2 - n m 2 sin 2 ( Φ 1 ) ] 0.5 ,
TH ( Å ) = - 0.432 ( Å / μ m ) * X ( μ m ) + 8661 . 1 ( Å ) ;
TH ( Å ) = - 0.426 ( Å / μ m ) * X ( μ m ) + 8532 . 0 ( Å ) .
TH ( Å ) = - 0.429 ( Å / μ m ) * X ( μ m ) + 8708 . 7 ( Å ) .

Metrics