Abstract

It is shown that multilevel SAL 110 resist kinoforms can be developed stepwise. Measurements of the kinoform diffraction pattern, performed between the development steps, permitted correct final developments to be made. No significant relief shape degradation was observed for development times as high as 25 min. The results imply that the electron-beam exposure doses, and hence the exposure time, can be reduced by a factor of 3 compared with doses used currently.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3604–3606 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1994

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

1975

T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, A.

Chang, T. H. P.

T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ekberg, M.

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3604–3606 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hård, S.

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3604–3606 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, M.

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3604–3606 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolajeff, F.

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, B.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasara, A.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Westerholm, J.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3604–3606 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Coinmun.

M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profilogram of a blazed grating relief used for the test object in a successive development experiment. The resist thickness is 2.4 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured power in three diffraction orders at various stages of development of a blazed grating resist relief; λ = 633 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated power in three diffraction orders for the grating shown in Fig. 1 as a function of linear depth scaling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction patterns obtained from a resist kinoform illuminated by (a) λ = 633 nm and (b) λ = 543 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction patterns from the same kinoform as in Fig. 4 after 35 s of excess development time: (a) λ = 633 nm and (b) λ = 543 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resist depth as a function of (a) development time and (b) electron dose. The data points were obtained through profilometer measurements of a successively developed resist test pattern. (a) The dashed line shows the unexposed resist thickness.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured diffracted power fraction for two binary gratings versus the product of electron dose and development time. Grating period: 8 μm. Electron doses: 20 (●) and 80 (×) μC/cm2; λ = 633 nm. Diffraction order: (a) zero, (b) +1, (c) +2, and (d) +3.

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