Abstract

A new type of imaging microlens, primarily for use with solid-state image-capture systems such as a charge coupled device (CCD) or metal oxide semiconductor array sensors, is described. The design, having less aberration than conventional lenses of similar specification, is particularly advantageous in wide-angle, low-light applications. The lens type is substantially simpler than any existing design. A particular example, a fixed focus f/3.5 lens with a 90° field of view and a depth of field from 2 cm to infinity, is detailed. The lens can be directly bonded to a solid-state array detector and requires no other mechanical support. The lens can be designed and manufactured at low cost and has current applications in surveillance and microscopy.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC vision,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1990 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 3038–3041.
  2. D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC image sensors,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 7.3.1–7.3.4.
  3. The 2/3-in. closed-circuit television lens quoted is product stock number 625-132 (RS Components, Ltd., Corby NN17 9EL, U.K.).
  4. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), Chap. 2, pp. 42–47.
  5. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 3, pp. 48–54.
  6. W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 7, pp. 111–142.
  7. P. B. Denyer, D. Renshaw, A. Halaas, “On chip CMOS sensors for VLSI imaging systems,” in Proceedings of IFIP Technical Conference 10/WG 10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, A. Halaas, P. B. Denyer, eds. (International Federation of Information Processing, Edinburgh, 1991), pp. 4b.1–4b.1.10.

Denyer, P. B.

D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC vision,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1990 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 3038–3041.

D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC image sensors,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 7.3.1–7.3.4.

P. B. Denyer, D. Renshaw, A. Halaas, “On chip CMOS sensors for VLSI imaging systems,” in Proceedings of IFIP Technical Conference 10/WG 10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, A. Halaas, P. B. Denyer, eds. (International Federation of Information Processing, Edinburgh, 1991), pp. 4b.1–4b.1.10.

Halaas, A.

P. B. Denyer, D. Renshaw, A. Halaas, “On chip CMOS sensors for VLSI imaging systems,” in Proceedings of IFIP Technical Conference 10/WG 10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, A. Halaas, P. B. Denyer, eds. (International Federation of Information Processing, Edinburgh, 1991), pp. 4b.1–4b.1.10.

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 3, pp. 48–54.

Renshaw, D.

P. B. Denyer, D. Renshaw, A. Halaas, “On chip CMOS sensors for VLSI imaging systems,” in Proceedings of IFIP Technical Conference 10/WG 10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, A. Halaas, P. B. Denyer, eds. (International Federation of Information Processing, Edinburgh, 1991), pp. 4b.1–4b.1.10.

D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC image sensors,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 7.3.1–7.3.4.

D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC vision,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1990 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 3038–3041.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), Chap. 2, pp. 42–47.

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 7, pp. 111–142.

Other

D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC vision,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 1990 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 3038–3041.

D. Renshaw, P. B. Denyer, “ASIC image sensors,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 7.3.1–7.3.4.

The 2/3-in. closed-circuit television lens quoted is product stock number 625-132 (RS Components, Ltd., Corby NN17 9EL, U.K.).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), Chap. 2, pp. 42–47.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 3, pp. 48–54.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 7, pp. 111–142.

P. B. Denyer, D. Renshaw, A. Halaas, “On chip CMOS sensors for VLSI imaging systems,” in Proceedings of IFIP Technical Conference 10/WG 10.5 International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, A. Halaas, P. B. Denyer, eds. (International Federation of Information Processing, Edinburgh, 1991), pp. 4b.1–4b.1.10.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Paraxial focal points (F and F″) and principal points (H and H″) of a hemispherical lens of refractive index n′.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ray-trace diagram of a hemispherical lens of refractive index n′ immersed in a single medium of lower refractive index (n < n′ > n″, n″ = n) imaging at an infinite conjugate ratio. (b) Ray-trace diagram of a hemispherical rod lens of refractive index n′(n < n′ = n″) imaging at an infinite conjugate ratio. (c) Ray-trace diagram of a two-element microlens with a hemisphere of refractive index n′ and a second element of refractive index n″(n < n′ < n″) imaging at an infinite conjugate ratio.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of a manufactured microlens bonded to a single-chip camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of an image from a single-chip camera with a microlens.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Power Dependence of Aberrations on Microlens Parameters6

Equations (3)

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k = ( n - n ) r 1 + ( n - n ) r 2 - t c ( n - n ) ( n - n ) n r 1 r 2 .
k = ( n - n ) r 1 .
k = n f = n f .

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