Abstract

The PAPA detector uses optical masks to decode the location of a photon event on the output phosphor of a high-gain image intensifier. Its use of Gray-coded masks creates image artifacts that are unique to this detector. The artifacts can arise from errors in mask alignment, incorrect discriminator settings, vignetting in the optics, and faults relating to the performance of the image intensifier. The symptoms and causes of the different image artifacts are discussed, and methods are presented to identify and correct these errors.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New two-dimensional photon camera,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360–364 (1982).
  2. C. Papaliolios, P. Nisenson, S. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector,” Appl. Opt. 24, 287–292 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Gonsiorowski, “A new product for photon-limited imaging,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 626–630 (1986).
  4. C. Standley, P. Nisenson, “A second generation PAPA camera,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 21, 1072 (1989).
  5. P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. D. Clark, M. Shao, M. Colavita, “A photon-camera star tracker for stellar interferometry,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy, VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt Instrum. Eng. 627, 838–845 (1986).
  7. M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, “On the alpha Orionis triple system,” Astrophys. J. 308, 260–269 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, “Resolution of the halo binary μ cas at optical wavelengths,” Astron. J. 92, 898–902 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Drummond, A. Eckart, E. K. Hege, “Speckle interferometry of asteroids: IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta,” Icarus 73, 1–14 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Ebstein, N. P. Carleton, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle imaging of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O iii]5007-Å line and nearby continuum,” Astrophys. J. 336, 103–111 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Beletic, R. M. Goody, D. J. Tholen, “Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry,” Icarus 79, 38–46 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. G. Driscoll, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 2–56, 2–57.
  16. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. H. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), pp. 894–896.
  17. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering The Design of Optical Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 96–99.
  18. S. M. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging of active galactic nuclei: NGC 1068 and NGC 4151,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 6–14.
  19. D. C. Slater, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, D. B. Kasle, “Imaging MAMA detector systems,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 35–49 (1990).
  20. B. Leskovar, “Microchannel Plates,” Phys. Today 30(11), 42–49 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Gonsiorowski, “Variable threshold discrimination in a photon-imaging detector,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1060–1065 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. K. Pollehn, “Image intensifiers,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, B. J. Thompson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), Vol. 6, Chap. 10, pp. 393–437.
  23. J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Laprade, M. Wheeler, “Dynamic range optimization in microchannel plates,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 132–139 (1990).

1989

C. Standley, P. Nisenson, “A second generation PAPA camera,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 21, 1072 (1989).

S. M. Ebstein, N. P. Carleton, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle imaging of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O iii]5007-Å line and nearby continuum,” Astrophys. J. 336, 103–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Beletic, R. M. Goody, D. J. Tholen, “Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry,” Icarus 79, 38–46 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Drummond, A. Eckart, E. K. Hege, “Speckle interferometry of asteroids: IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta,” Icarus 73, 1–14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, “On the alpha Orionis triple system,” Astrophys. J. 308, 260–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, “Resolution of the halo binary μ cas at optical wavelengths,” Astron. J. 92, 898–902 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, P. Nisenson, S. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector,” Appl. Opt. 24, 287–292 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1979

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

B. Leskovar, “Microchannel Plates,” Phys. Today 30(11), 42–49 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Beletic, J. W.

J. W. Beletic, R. M. Goody, D. J. Tholen, “Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry,” Icarus 79, 38–46 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, N. P.

S. M. Ebstein, N. P. Carleton, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle imaging of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O iii]5007-Å line and nearby continuum,” Astrophys. J. 336, 103–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clark, L. D.

L. D. Clark, M. Shao, M. Colavita, “A photon-camera star tracker for stellar interferometry,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy, VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt Instrum. Eng. 627, 838–845 (1986).

Colavita, M.

L. D. Clark, M. Shao, M. Colavita, “A photon-camera star tracker for stellar interferometry,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy, VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt Instrum. Eng. 627, 838–845 (1986).

Drummond, J.

J. Drummond, A. Eckart, E. K. Hege, “Speckle interferometry of asteroids: IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta,” Icarus 73, 1–14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ebstein, S.

Ebstein, S. M.

S. M. Ebstein, N. P. Carleton, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle imaging of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O iii]5007-Å line and nearby continuum,” Astrophys. J. 336, 103–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging of active galactic nuclei: NGC 1068 and NGC 4151,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 6–14.

Eckart, A.

J. Drummond, A. Eckart, E. K. Hege, “Speckle interferometry of asteroids: IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta,” Icarus 73, 1–14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. H. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), pp. 894–896.

Gonsiorowski, T.

T. Gonsiorowski, “Variable threshold discrimination in a photon-imaging detector,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1060–1065 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gonsiorowski, “A new product for photon-limited imaging,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 626–630 (1986).

Goody, R. M.

J. W. Beletic, R. M. Goody, D. J. Tholen, “Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry,” Icarus 79, 38–46 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heathcote, S.

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hege, E. K.

J. Drummond, A. Eckart, E. K. Hege, “Speckle interferometry of asteroids: IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta,” Icarus 73, 1–14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Karovska, M.

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, “Resolution of the halo binary μ cas at optical wavelengths,” Astron. J. 92, 898–902 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, “On the alpha Orionis triple system,” Astrophys. J. 308, 260–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kasle, D. B.

D. C. Slater, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, D. B. Kasle, “Imaging MAMA detector systems,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 35–49 (1990).

Koechlin, L.

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Laprade, B.

B. Laprade, M. Wheeler, “Dynamic range optimization in microchannel plates,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 132–139 (1990).

Leskovar, B.

B. Leskovar, “Microchannel Plates,” Phys. Today 30(11), 42–49 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, L.

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New two-dimensional photon camera,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360–364 (1982).

Morgan, J. S.

D. C. Slater, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, D. B. Kasle, “Imaging MAMA detector systems,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 35–49 (1990).

Nisenson, P.

C. Standley, P. Nisenson, “A second generation PAPA camera,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 21, 1072 (1989).

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, “Resolution of the halo binary μ cas at optical wavelengths,” Astron. J. 92, 898–902 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, “On the alpha Orionis triple system,” Astrophys. J. 308, 260–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, P. Nisenson, S. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector,” Appl. Opt. 24, 287–292 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noyes, R.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, “On the alpha Orionis triple system,” Astrophys. J. 308, 260–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Papaliolios, C.

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ebstein, N. P. Carleton, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle imaging of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O iii]5007-Å line and nearby continuum,” Astrophys. J. 336, 103–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, P. Nisenson, S. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector,” Appl. Opt. 24, 287–292 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New two-dimensional photon camera,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360–364 (1982).

Pollehn, H. K.

H. K. Pollehn, “Image intensifiers,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, B. J. Thompson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), Vol. 6, Chap. 10, pp. 393–437.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. H. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), pp. 894–896.

Shao, M.

L. D. Clark, M. Shao, M. Colavita, “A photon-camera star tracker for stellar interferometry,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy, VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt Instrum. Eng. 627, 838–845 (1986).

Slater, D. C.

D. C. Slater, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, D. B. Kasle, “Imaging MAMA detector systems,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 35–49 (1990).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering The Design of Optical Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 96–99.

Stachnik, R. V.

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, “Resolution of the halo binary μ cas at optical wavelengths,” Astron. J. 92, 898–902 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Standley, C.

C. Standley, P. Nisenson, “A second generation PAPA camera,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 21, 1072 (1989).

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. H. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), pp. 894–896.

Tholen, D. J.

J. W. Beletic, R. M. Goody, D. J. Tholen, “Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry,” Icarus 79, 38–46 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J. G.

D. C. Slater, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, D. B. Kasle, “Imaging MAMA detector systems,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 35–49 (1990).

Vetterling, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. H. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), pp. 894–896.

Wheeler, M.

B. Laprade, M. Wheeler, “Dynamic range optimization in microchannel plates,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 132–139 (1990).

Wiza, J. L.

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. J.

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, “Resolution of the halo binary μ cas at optical wavelengths,” Astron. J. 92, 898–902 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “Detection of a very bright source close to the LMC supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 320, L15–L18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, R. V. Stachnik, M. Karovska, R. Noyes, “A new optical source associated with T Tauri,” Astrophys. J. 297, L17–L20 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, C. Standley, “Measurements of the diameter of the large Magellanic cloud supernova SN 1987A,” Astrophys. J. 340, 435–442 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ebstein, N. P. Carleton, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle imaging of NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 in the [O iii]5007-Å line and nearby continuum,” Astrophys. J. 336, 103–111 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, R. Noyes, “On the alpha Orionis triple system,” Astrophys. J. 308, 260–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.

C. Standley, P. Nisenson, “A second generation PAPA camera,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 21, 1072 (1989).

Icarus

J. Drummond, A. Eckart, E. K. Hege, “Speckle interferometry of asteroids: IV. Reconstructed images of 4 Vesta,” Icarus 73, 1–14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Beletic, R. M. Goody, D. J. Tholen, “Orbital elements of Charon from speckle interferometry,” Icarus 79, 38–46 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, L. Koechlin, P. Nisenson, C. Standley, S. Heathcote, “Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A,” Nature (London) 338, 565–566 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

J. L. Wiza, “Microchannel plate detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

B. Leskovar, “Microchannel Plates,” Phys. Today 30(11), 42–49 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. G. Driscoll, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 2–56, 2–57.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. H. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), pp. 894–896.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering The Design of Optical Systems (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), pp. 96–99.

S. M. Ebstein, “Speckle imaging of active galactic nuclei: NGC 1068 and NGC 4151,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1987), pp. 6–14.

D. C. Slater, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, D. B. Kasle, “Imaging MAMA detector systems,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 35–49 (1990).

L. D. Clark, M. Shao, M. Colavita, “A photon-camera star tracker for stellar interferometry,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy, VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt Instrum. Eng. 627, 838–845 (1986).

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New two-dimensional photon camera,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360–364 (1982).

T. Gonsiorowski, “A new product for photon-limited imaging,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VI, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 627, 626–630 (1986).

B. Laprade, M. Wheeler, “Dynamic range optimization in microchannel plates,” in Electron Image Tubes and Image Intensifiers, I. P. Csorba, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 132–139 (1990).

H. K. Pollehn, “Image intensifiers,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. Kingslake, B. J. Thompson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), Vol. 6, Chap. 10, pp. 393–437.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical layout of the PAPA camera optical components. In this case a 256 × 256 pixel camera is shown that incorporates the mask plate of Fig. 2. Arriving photons are represented by bright photon events at the output of the intensifier. As they arrive, one by one, they are reimaged onto an array of masks to encode their coordinates optically.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gray-coded mask plate for a 256 × 256 pixel PAPA camera. For the x axis the most significant bit is determined by the X0 mask (half-opaque), and masks with finer rulings add extra bits to the photon address through until the X7 mask, which determines the least significant bit. All masks are shown, except the 5, 6, and 7 masks, which have rulings too fine to be illustrated. The masks define a square field but are here made oversize and circular. The central strobe mask is transparent as indicated, and the outer white circle bounds the effective aperture of the large lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Alignment chart showing each mask properly aligned with respect to the zero-order and seventh-order masks. Every second pixel boundary is defined by the stripe edges of the finest mask, mask 7. Half of the remaining mask boundaries, those that lie within the transparent stripes of mask 7, are defined by the edges of mask 6. All other pixel boundaries lie within the opaque stripes of mask 7 and are defined by the edges of masks 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flat field with alignment errors. A circular flat field is shown that contains alignment faults in both axes. The main faults are associated with shifts and magnification errors in the X1, Y2, and Y3 masks. A magnification error in the X1 mask causes only one of two mask edges to be misaligned. The complete Gray code is shown for reference immediately above this image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flat field with defocus artifacts. The image tube was moved from the best focus location, and alignment errors are now present at almost every mask edge, producing a very granulated image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Flat field with a discriminator error in the X1 channel. Because the threshold in the X1 channel is set far too low, 95% of all photon events are given addresses where the X1 bit is set on, and the mask image and folding are clearly seen. For a small error in the threshold only a faint image of the mask would be present.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flat field with a discriminator error in the X2 channel, which is similar to the example in Fig. 6, but the folding of the data is now more complicated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Flat field with a vignetting error in one mask. The discriminator settings were the same as in Fig. 4, but a card was placed to vignette the lower half of the Y3 mask. It appears as if there is a discriminator error in that part of the image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sum of all masks. If all Gray-coded masks were slightly transparent and placed one on top of the other, both x and y, this is the image that would be produced. There are 16 masks represented here for 8 bits of address information along each axis. The darker regions are where most address bits are off.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Light level problems. This image was taken in identical conditions as Fig. 4, except that a brighter flat field was used. The response of the image tube has changed so that aspects of Fig. 9 are strongly superimposed here. Particularly noticeable are bright lines at addresses where most address bits are off.

Equations (2)

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ξ ( M + ) - ξ M < β d 2 n .
M < β 2 n - 1 .

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