Abstract

Letter imaging of ideal-model diffractive, bifocal intraocular lenses is computer simulated. How the image is influenced by letter size, pupil diameter, and pupil displacement is studied. We find that the image quality is good as long as the letter sizes are not of the same order of magnitude as the unfocused background. If the sizes are comparable, considerable image degradation occurs.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 142–149 (1989).
  2. J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  3. M. Larsson, C. Beckman, A. Nyström, S. Hård, J. Sjöstrand, “Optical properties of diffractive, bifocal, intraocular lenses,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2377–2384 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Simpson, “Diffractive multifocal intraocular lens image quality,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3621–3626 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Auran, C. J. Koester, A. Donn, “In vivo measurement of posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration and tilt,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 75–79 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Hedin, K. Olsson, “Letter legibility and the construction of a new visual acuity chart,” Ophthalmologica Basel 189, 147–156 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Shephard, “Update of the worldwide study of 3M diffraction multifocal IOL,” presented at the Eighth Congress of the European Intraocular Implantlens Council, Dublin, Ireland, September 1990.
  8. H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1990 (2)

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

J. D. Auran, C. J. Koester, A. Donn, “In vivo measurement of posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration and tilt,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 75–79 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. Hedin, K. Olsson, “Letter legibility and the construction of a new visual acuity chart,” Ophthalmologica Basel 189, 147–156 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akutsu, H.

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Auran, J. D.

J. D. Auran, C. J. Koester, A. Donn, “In vivo measurement of posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration and tilt,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 75–79 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckman, C.

Donn, A.

J. D. Auran, C. J. Koester, A. Donn, “In vivo measurement of posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration and tilt,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 75–79 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Futhey, J. A.

J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 142–149 (1989).

Hård, S.

Hedin, A.

A. Hedin, K. Olsson, “Letter legibility and the construction of a new visual acuity chart,” Ophthalmologica Basel 189, 147–156 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Kirby, V. M.

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koester, C. J.

J. D. Auran, C. J. Koester, A. Donn, “In vivo measurement of posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration and tilt,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 75–79 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, A.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Larsson, M.

Legge, G. E.

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lindstrom, R. L.

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nyström, A.

Oksman, H. C.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Olsson, K.

A. Hedin, K. Olsson, “Letter legibility and the construction of a new visual acuity chart,” Ophthalmologica Basel 189, 147–156 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Portney, V.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Shephard, D.

D. Shephard, “Update of the worldwide study of 3M diffraction multifocal IOL,” presented at the Eighth Congress of the European Intraocular Implantlens Council, Dublin, Ireland, September 1990.

Showalter, M.

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. J.

Sjöstrand, J.

Sun, R.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

van Dijk, H.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Willis, T. R.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Zabel, R. W.

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. D. Auran, C. J. Koester, A. Donn, “In vivo measurement of posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration and tilt,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 108, 75–79 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Opthalmol. (1)

H. Akutsu, G. E. Legge, M. Showalter, R. L. Lindstrom, R. W. Zabel, V. M. Kirby, “Contrast sensitivity and reading through multifocal intraocular lenses,” Arch. Opthalmol. 110, 1076–1080 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmologica Basel (1)

A. Hedin, K. Olsson, “Letter legibility and the construction of a new visual acuity chart,” Ophthalmologica Basel 189, 147–156 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Shephard, “Update of the worldwide study of 3M diffraction multifocal IOL,” presented at the Eighth Congress of the European Intraocular Implantlens Council, Dublin, Ireland, September 1990.

J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 142–149 (1989).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

B lens geometry for the imaging of a monochromatic point source at infinity. ϕ, pupil diameter; Δ, pupil displacement relative to the optical axis; f0, f1, the focal lengths for distant vision and near vision, respectively; β, planar angle of the unfocused image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Actual letter sizes as given in Table 1, when viewed at distance of 100 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Letters Y, N, K, D, and E imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 0.13 mrad. (a) Pupil diameter ϕ = 1.5 mm, pupil displacement Δ = 0; (b) ϕ = 1.5 mm, Δ = 1.0 mm; (c) ϕ = 3.0 mm, Δ = 0; (d) ϕ = 3.0 mm, Δ = 1.0 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Letters E, N, V, D, and K imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 0.26 mrad. (By mistake the letter D has a small protrusion.) (a) Pupil diameter ϕ = 1.5 mm, pupil displacement Δ = 0; (b) ϕ = 1.5 mm, Δ = 1.0 mm; (c) ϕ = 3.0 mm, Δ = 0; (d) ϕ = 3.0 mm, Δ = 1.0 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Letters C, F, and E imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 m−1 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 1.04 mrad. Pupil diameter ϕ = 1.5 mm. (a) Pupil displacement Δ = 0, (b) Δ = 1.0 m, (c) Δ = 1.0 mm and halved letter spacing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Letters C, F, and E imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 m−1 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 1.04 mrad. Pupil diameter ϕ = 3.0 mm. (a) Pupil displacement Δ = 0, (b) Δ = 1.0 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Letters F and C imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 m−1 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 2.09 mrad. Pupil diameter ϕ = 1.5 mm and pupil displacement Δ = 1.0 mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Letters F and C imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 m−1 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 2.09 mrad. Pupil diameter ϕ = 3.0 mm. (a) Pupil displacement Δ = 0, (b) Δ = 1.0 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Letter E imaged in the near focal plane (D = 17 m−1 + 3.5 m−1). Letter size α = 2.61 mrad. Pupil diameter ϕ = 3.0 mm (a) Pupil displacement Δ = 0, (b) Δ = 0.5 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Letters C, F and E imaged half-way between foci. Letter size α = 1.04 mrad. Pupil diameter ϕ = 1.5 mm. (a) Pupil displacement Δ = 0, (b) Δ = 1.0 mm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Letter Sizes Used in the Simulations

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Table 2 Contour Labels Used in the Plots and Corresponding Normalized Intensities

Equations (1)

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β δ D ϕ ,

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