Abstract

Results of thermal conductivity measurements are reported for several of the more recently developed nonlinear optical crystals. New or substantially revised values of thermal conductivity were obtained in six materials. Notable thermal conductivities measured were those for AgGaS2 [0.014 W/(cm K) and 0.015 W/(cm K)], AgGaSe2 [0.010 W/(cm K) and 0.011 W/(cm K)], beta barium borate [0.016 W/(cm K) and 0.012 W/(cm K)], and ZnGeP2 [0.36 W/(cm K) and 0.35 W/(cm K)], with values quoted for directions respectively parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis for each material. These new data provide necessary input for the design of high-power optical frequency converters.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  2. P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “Kilohertz AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1068–1070 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.
  4. R. L. Weber, Heat and Temperature Measurement (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1950), Chap. 8, pp. 283–286.
  5. S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi A 51, K35–K40 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Garbato, A. Rucci, “Thermal conductivity and ionicity in chalcopyrite semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 350–351 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Textron Defense Systems, “CO2 laser frequency doubling,” Final Rep. to the Naval Research Laboratory N00014-91-C-2279 (Textron Defense Systems, Wilmington, Mass., 1992), pp. 53–56.
  8. R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.
  9. K. Masumoto, S. Isomura, W. Goto, “The preparation and properties of ZnGeP2 and CdGeP2 semiconducting compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27, 1939–1947 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Ioffe, A. F. Ioffe, “Thermal conductivity of semiconductor solid solutions,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 719–728 (1960).
  12. M. J. Weber, ed., Optical Materials, Vol. 4 of CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Part 2, p. 51–53.
  13. David R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1990), p. 15–37.
  14. W. A. Hargreaves, “Magnesium fluoride update and summary of optical properties,” Laser Focus 18(9), 86–93 (1982).

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

W. A. Hargreaves, “Magnesium fluoride update and summary of optical properties,” Laser Focus 18(9), 86–93 (1982).

1979 (2)

S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi A 51, K35–K40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. Garbato, A. Rucci, “Thermal conductivity and ionicity in chalcopyrite semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 350–351 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. Masumoto, S. Isomura, W. Goto, “The preparation and properties of ZnGeP2 and CdGeP2 semiconducting compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27, 1939–1947 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

A. V. Ioffe, A. F. Ioffe, “Thermal conductivity of semiconductor solid solutions,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 719–728 (1960).

Annamamedov, R. A.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.

Balanevskaya, A. E.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.

Berger, L. I.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.

Budni, P. A.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “Kilohertz AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1068–1070 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.

Catella, G. C.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Chicklis, E. P.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “Kilohertz AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1068–1070 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.

Cooper, D. G.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Davis, L.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DeDomenico, R.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Dobrushina, I. A.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Garbato, L.

L. Garbato, A. Rucci, “Thermal conductivity and ionicity in chalcopyrite semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 350–351 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goto, W.

K. Masumoto, S. Isomura, W. Goto, “The preparation and properties of ZnGeP2 and CdGeP2 semiconducting compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27, 1939–1947 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Graham, E. K.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hargreaves, W. A.

W. A. Hargreaves, “Magnesium fluoride update and summary of optical properties,” Laser Focus 18(9), 86–93 (1982).

Ioffe, A. F.

A. V. Ioffe, A. F. Ioffe, “Thermal conductivity of semiconductor solid solutions,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 719–728 (1960).

Ioffe, A. V.

A. V. Ioffe, A. F. Ioffe, “Thermal conductivity of semiconductor solid solutions,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 719–728 (1960).

Isomura, S.

K. Masumoto, S. Isomura, W. Goto, “The preparation and properties of ZnGeP2 and CdGeP2 semiconducting compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27, 1939–1947 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Knights, M. G.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “Kilohertz AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1068–1070 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.

Marquardt, C. L.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Masumoto, K.

K. Masumoto, S. Isomura, W. Goto, “The preparation and properties of ZnGeP2 and CdGeP2 semiconducting compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27, 1939–1947 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, T. M.

P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.

Rucci, A.

L. Garbato, A. Rucci, “Thermal conductivity and ionicity in chalcopyrite semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 350–351 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schepler, K. L.

P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, E. P. Chicklis, K. L. Schepler, “Kilohertz AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator pumped at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1068–1070 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Schunemann, P. G.

P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.

Shchukina, I. K.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.

Velsko, S.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wasim, S. M.

S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi A 51, K35–K40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R. L.

R. L. Weber, Heat and Temperature Measurement (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1950), Chap. 8, pp. 283–286.

Zalkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Garbato, A. Rucci, “Thermal conductivity and ionicity in chalcopyrite semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 350–351 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

K. Masumoto, S. Isomura, W. Goto, “The preparation and properties of ZnGeP2 and CdGeP2 semiconducting compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27, 1939–1947 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus (1)

W. A. Hargreaves, “Magnesium fluoride update and summary of optical properties,” Laser Focus 18(9), 86–93 (1982).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. M. Wasim, “Thermal conductivity of ternary compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi A 51, K35–K40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

A. V. Ioffe, A. F. Ioffe, “Thermal conductivity of semiconductor solid solutions,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 719–728 (1960).

Other (7)

M. J. Weber, ed., Optical Materials, Vol. 4 of CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Part 2, p. 51–53.

David R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1990), p. 15–37.

C. L. Marquardt, D. G. Cooper, P. A. Budni, M. G. Knights, K. L. Schepler, R. DeDomenico, G. C. Catella, “Thermal lensing in silver gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

P. A. Budni, P. G. Schunemann, M. G. Knights, T. M. Pollack, E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient high average power optical parametric oscillator using ZnGeP2,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1992), pp. 380–383.

R. L. Weber, Heat and Temperature Measurement (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1950), Chap. 8, pp. 283–286.

Textron Defense Systems, “CO2 laser frequency doubling,” Final Rep. to the Naval Research Laboratory N00014-91-C-2279 (Textron Defense Systems, Wilmington, Mass., 1992), pp. 53–56.

R. A. Annamamedov, A. E. Balanevskaya, L. I. Berger, I. A. Dobrushina, I. K. Shchukina, “Thermal and elastic properties of a number of diamond-like semiconducting ternary compounds,” in Chemical Bonds in Semiconductors and Thermodynamics, N. N. Sirota, ed. (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1972), p. 240.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the structure used for the measurement of thermal conductivity.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Definitions of Symbols

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Table 2 Thermal Conductivities of Selected Optical Materials at Room Temperature a

Equations (2)

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K s = L A s [ T 1 T 2 m 1 C p 1 ( d T 1 d t T 1 T 2 R L m 1 C pl ) G 2 r c A 1 A s ] ,
G = 1 + ( 0.3 ) m s C ps m 1 C pl + ( 0.3 ) m s C ps L m 1 C p 1 R L A s K s .

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