Abstract

An external-reflection scanning near-field optical microscope with the detected light polarized perpendicular to the polarization of the light coupled into the fiber is presented. When various metallic gratings are scanned, it is shown that the lateral and the depth resolutions of this microscope are better than 100 and 10 nm, respectively.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).
  2. U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, B. Bölger, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Scanned Probe Microscopy, H. K. Wickramasinghe, ed., Proc. Am. Inst. Phys.241, 79–94 (1991).
  9. D. Courjon, J.-M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, S. Leblanc, “External and internal reflection near-field microscopy: experiments and results,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3734–3740 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249–251 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Umeda, Y. Hayashi, K. Nagai, A. Takayanagi, “Scanning Wiener-fringe microscope with an optical fiber tip,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4515–4518 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip–surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. Girard, M. Spajer, “Model for reflection near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3726–3733 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Berntsen, E. Bozhevolnaya, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Macroscopic self-consistent model for external-reflection near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 878–885 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Denk, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510–513 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  16. O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993)
    [Crossref]

1993 (3)

1992 (3)

N. Umeda, Y. Hayashi, K. Nagai, A. Takayanagi, “Scanning Wiener-fringe microscope with an optical fiber tip,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4515–4518 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Denk, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510–513 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

1988 (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249–251 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bölger, B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, B. Bölger, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Scanned Probe Microscopy, H. K. Wickramasinghe, ed., Proc. Am. Inst. Phys.241, 79–94 (1991).

Bozhevolnaya, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

S. Berntsen, E. Bozhevolnaya, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Macroscopic self-consistent model for external-reflection near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 878–885 (1993).
[Crossref]

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993)
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Chen, Y.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chilcott, D. W.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[Crossref]

Courjon, D.

Denk, W.

W. Denk, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510–513 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dürig, U.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[Crossref]

Dürig, U. T.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249–251 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ferrell, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[Crossref]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fischer, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249–251 (1988).
[Crossref]

Girard, C.

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayashi, Y.

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[Crossref]

Keller, O.

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993)
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip–surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leblanc, S.

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[Crossref]

Nagai, K.

Pohl, D. W.

W. Denk, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510–513 (1991).
[Crossref]

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249–251 (1988).
[Crossref]

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[Crossref]

Reddick, R. C.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rohner, F.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sarayeddine, K.

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, B. Bölger, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Scanned Probe Microscopy, H. K. Wickramasinghe, ed., Proc. Am. Inst. Phys.241, 79–94 (1991).

Sharp, S. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[Crossref]

Spajer, M.

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Takayanagi, A.

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[Crossref]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Umeda, N.

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[Crossref]

van Hulst, N. F.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, B. Bölger, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Scanned Probe Microscopy, H. K. Wickramasinghe, ed., Proc. Am. Inst. Phys.241, 79–94 (1991).

Vigoureux, J.-M.

Warmack, R. J.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993)
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, “Control of the tip–surface distance in near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4864–4868 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249–251 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, “Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088–2090 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, “Near-field optical-scanning microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318–3327 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Denk, D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: microscopy with nanometer-size fields,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510–513 (1991).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. (1)

E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, T. L. Ferrell, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3669–3677 (1990).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (1)

O. Keller, M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach,” Surf. Sci. 280, 217–230 (1993)
[Crossref]

Other (1)

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, B. Bölger, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Scanned Probe Microscopy, H. K. Wickramasinghe, ed., Proc. Am. Inst. Phys.241, 79–94 (1991).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the external-reflection scanning near-field optical microscope with cross-polarized detection: LS, laser source; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; G, generator; P’s, polarizers; BS, beam splitter; O, objective; W, wedge; PT, piezoelectric translator; S, sample; PM, photomultiplier; LIA, lock-in amplifier; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflected light power I measured as a function of the distance z between the fiber tip and a flat silver-coated mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profiles of the diffraction grating of 1.6-μm period with rectangular grooves of ~ 100-nm depth obtained at different tip–surface distances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of the blazed diffraction grating of 0.83-μm period with grooves of ~ 80-nm depth obtained at different tip–surface distances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profile of the symmetric sawtooth shape grating of 0.55-μm period with the groove depth of ~ 100 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Gray-scale image and (b) two-dimensional scan of the diffraction grating of 0.75-μm period obtained with the electron STM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two successive scans of the grating shown in Fig. 6 obtained with our SNOM. The lower scan is deliberately displaced downward along the z axis by 0.05 μm for the sake of better comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profile of the same part of the grating as that imaged in Fig. 7 obtained with the parallel polarizers.

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