Abstract

A number of nonnumerical processing applications, including database management, full text search, and pattern recognition rely heavily on digital comparisons. The development of massive-capacity optical memories coupled with the high speed and parallelism of optics have led to the investigation of optical techniques for nonnumerical processing. This paper proposes a system design for an optical comparator capable of performing multiple equal-to, less-than, and greater-than comparisons between pairs of binary words. The comparator consists of three two-dimensional arrays of optical elements based on a new optical logic device called the light-amplifying optical switch. The first two stages contain inverters, nor gates, and flip-flops, while the third stage is a custom-designed winner-takes-all network. With a compact design and with small high-speed devices a comparator with 2.5 × 104 pixels could theoretically attain a processing rate of approximately 4 × 1010 16-bit word comparisons/s.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Mikaelian, “The present state and future prospects for the development of optical memory systems,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 4, 673–694 (1989).
  2. D. Psaltis, A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, “Optical memory disks in optical information processing,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2038–2057 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. W. Lohman, “Polarization and optical logic,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1594–1597 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, H. Suzuki, “Optical implementation of parallel digital adder and subtractor,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2099–2106 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. S. Guilfoyle, W. Jackson Wiley, “Combinatorial logic based optical computing architectures,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1661–1673 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  8. W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).
  9. K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, “Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 385–391 (1987).
  10. C. W. Stirk, R. A. Athale, “Sorting with optical compare-and-exchange modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1721–1726 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.
  12. S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Sasaki, M. Kuzuhara, “InGaAsP-InP heterojunction phototransistors and light amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, pp. L283–L286 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Beneking, “Full solid-state image converter based on integration of phototransistors and LED’s,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. EDL-2, 99–100 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, D. H. Lee, “Integration of 1024 InGaAsP/InP optoelectronic switches,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 1630–1634 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, S. A. Feld, “Integrated optical nor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 390–392 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  21. X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.
  22. J. I. Pankove, C. Radehaus, K. Wagner, “Winner-takes-all neural net with memory,” Electron. Lett. 26, 349–350 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. Dhoedt, P. DeDobbelaere, L. Buydens, R. Baets, B. Houssay, “Optical free-space board-to-board interconnections: options for optical pathways,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5508–5516 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.
  25. F. B. McCormick, “Optomechanics of smart pixel systems,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 67.
  26. P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “PHOEBUS: an optoelectronic database machine based on parallel optical disks,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 230–244 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “Parallel optical memories for very large databases,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, S. T. Kowel, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1773, 377–389 (1992).

1993 (1)

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “PHOEBUS: an optoelectronic database machine based on parallel optical disks,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 230–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (4)

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, S. A. Feld, “Integrated optical nor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 390–392 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Dhoedt, P. DeDobbelaere, L. Buydens, R. Baets, B. Houssay, “Optical free-space board-to-board interconnections: options for optical pathways,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5508–5516 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (4)

D. Psaltis, A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, “Optical memory disks in optical information processing,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2038–2057 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, H. Suzuki, “Optical implementation of parallel digital adder and subtractor,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2099–2106 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, D. H. Lee, “Integration of 1024 InGaAsP/InP optoelectronic switches,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 1630–1634 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. I. Pankove, C. Radehaus, K. Wagner, “Winner-takes-all neural net with memory,” Electron. Lett. 26, 349–350 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

A. L. Mikaelian, “The present state and future prospects for the development of optical memory systems,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 4, 673–694 (1989).

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, “Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 385–391 (1987).

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

1981 (2)

A. Sasaki, M. Kuzuhara, “InGaAsP-InP heterojunction phototransistors and light amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, pp. L283–L286 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. Beneking, “Full solid-state image converter based on integration of phototransistors and LED’s,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. EDL-2, 99–100 (1981).
[Crossref]

An, X.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
[Crossref]

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

Anderson, R. H.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Athale, R. A.

Baets, R.

Beneking, H.

H. Beneking, “Full solid-state image converter based on integration of phototransistors and LED’s,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. EDL-2, 99–100 (1981).
[Crossref]

Berra, P. B.

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “PHOEBUS: an optoelectronic database machine based on parallel optical disks,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 230–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “Parallel optical memories for very large databases,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, S. T. Kowel, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1773, 377–389 (1992).

Beyette, F. R.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, S. A. Feld, “Integrated optical nor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 390–392 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Buydens, L.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Crumbaker, T. E.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

DeDobbelaere, P.

Dhoedt, B.

Feld, S. A.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, S. A. Feld, “Integrated optical nor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 390–392 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Freund, J. M.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Fukushima, S.

Geib, K.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Geib, K. M.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, S. A. Feld, “Integrated optical nor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 390–392 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ghafoor, A.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Guilfoyle, P. S.

Guizani, M.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

Guth, G.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Hafich, M. J.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Handschy, M. A.

K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, “Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 385–391 (1987).

Houssay, B.

Jackson Wiley, W.

Johnson, K. M.

K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, “Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 385–391 (1987).

Kobayashi, S.

Kurokawa, T.

Kuzuhara, M.

A. Sasaki, M. Kuzuhara, “InGaAsP-InP heterojunction phototransistors and light amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, pp. L283–L286 (1981).
[Crossref]

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Lee, D. H.

K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, D. H. Lee, “Integration of 1024 InGaAsP/InP optoelectronic switches,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 1630–1634 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. Y.

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Lentine, A. L.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Lohman, A. W.

Marcinkowski, S. J.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

Matsuda, K.

K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, D. H. Lee, “Integration of 1024 InGaAsP/InP optoelectronic switches,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 1630–1634 (1990).
[Crossref]

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, “Optomechanics of smart pixel systems,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 67.

Mikaelian, A. L.

A. L. Mikaelian, “The present state and future prospects for the development of optical memory systems,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 4, 673–694 (1989).

Mitkas, P. A.

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “PHOEBUS: an optoelectronic database machine based on parallel optical disks,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 230–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “Parallel optical memories for very large databases,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, S. T. Kowel, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1773, 377–389 (1992).

Neifeld, M. A.

Pagano-Stauffer, L. A.

K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, “Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 385–391 (1987).

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove, C. Radehaus, K. Wagner, “Winner-takes-all neural net with memory,” Electron. Lett. 26, 349–350 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, A. Yamamura, M. A. Neifeld, S. Kobayashi, “Optical memory disks in optical information processing,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2038–2057 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Radehaus, C.

J. I. Pankove, C. Radehaus, K. Wagner, “Winner-takes-all neural net with memory,” Electron. Lett. 26, 349–350 (1990).
[Crossref]

Robinson, G. Y.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Ross, W. E.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Sasaki, A.

A. Sasaki, M. Kuzuhara, “InGaAsP-InP heterojunction phototransistors and light amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, pp. L283–L286 (1981).
[Crossref]

Silvestre, P.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

Stirk, C. W.

Suzuki, H.

Takimoto, K.

K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, D. H. Lee, “Integration of 1024 InGaAsP/InP optoelectronic switches,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 1630–1634 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wagner, K.

J. I. Pankove, C. Radehaus, K. Wagner, “Winner-takes-all neural net with memory,” Electron. Lett. 26, 349–350 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wilmsen, C. W.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

Woods, L. M.

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yamamura, A.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, T. E. Crumbaker, P. Silvestre, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Two wavelength optically controlled latch and and gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 636–638 (1992).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

X. An, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, L. M. Woods, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integrated optical nand gate,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1545–1546 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. I. Pankove, C. Radehaus, K. Wagner, “Winner-takes-all neural net with memory,” Electron. Lett. 26, 349–350 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. M. Geib, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Integration optical inverter using a light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” Electron. Lett. 27, 497–498 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Circuits Devices (1)

C. W. Wilmsen, S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, “Switching light with light,” IEEE Circuits Devices 7, 21–25 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. (1)

H. Beneking, “Full solid-state image converter based on integration of phototransistors and LED’s,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. EDL-2, 99–100 (1981).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, S. A. Feld, “Integrated optical nor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 390–392 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (2)

K. Matsuda, K. Takimoto, D. H. Lee, “Integration of 1024 InGaAsP/InP optoelectronic switches,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 37, 1630–1634 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, M. J. Hafich, H. Y. Lee, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “Electrical and optical feedback in an InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch (LAOS),” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 2452–2459 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. (1)

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “PHOEBUS: an optoelectronic database machine based on parallel optical disks,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 17, 230–244 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sasaki, M. Kuzuhara, “InGaAsP-InP heterojunction phototransistors and light amplifiers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, pp. L283–L286 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

K. M. Johnson, M. A. Handschy, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, “Optical computing and image processing with ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 26, 385–391 (1987).

Radiotekh. Elektron. (1)

A. L. Mikaelian, “The present state and future prospects for the development of optical memory systems,” Radiotekh. Elektron. 4, 673–694 (1989).

Other (6)

X. An, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, K. Geib, C. W. Wilmsen, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, “Gated optical latch based on InGaAs/InP light amplifying optical switch,” in Digest of Conference on Photonic Switching (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 99–102.

P. A. Mitkas, P. B. Berra, “Parallel optical memories for very large databases,” in Photonics for Computers, Neural Networks, and Memories, S. T. Kowel, W. J. Miceli, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1773, 377–389 (1992).

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and testing of FET-SEED smart pixel arrays,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 63–64.

F. B. McCormick, “Optomechanics of smart pixel systems,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 67.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

S. A. Feld, F. R. Beyette, X. An, H. Y. Lee, M. J. Hafich, G. Y. Robinson, C. W. Wilmsen, “High gain InP/InGaAs phototransistor/LED optical amplifier,” in Second International Conference on InP and Related Materials (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), pp. 175–180.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mesa diagram and equivalent circuit of the LAOS device, showing the optical input and output paths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current–voltage characteristics of the LAOS device showing the effects of increasing optical input.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Load-line diagram of the optical set–reset flip-flop. Operating points A and C produce low light output, while point B produces the high output. Here IL is the current through the LAOS device, VB is the bias voltage, R is the load resistance, IH and VH are the LAOS holding current and voltage, respectively, and VL is the voltage across the LAOS device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional diagram of the optical set–reset flip-flop showing the metal interconnection between adjacent mesas.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Equivalent circuit diagrams of the various optical logic gates used in the first two processing stages of ODCU.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical digital comparison unit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Equivalent logic gates for the first two stages.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Pixel diagram of the first stage, (b) pixel diagram of the second stage. The inputs to the second stage correspond spatially to the outputs of the first stage.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electrical interconnections and biasing for the weighted winner-takes-all network (stage 3).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pixel diagram of the winner-takes-all network.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Modified ODCU showing the possibility for comparing larger words by use of several stages in parallel.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic diagram of a lenslet-based optical interconnection.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Generation of Six Comparison Functions by Three Minimal Functionally Complete Operator Subsets

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J D 0 = i = 0 n - 1 J off ( i ) ,
J D 1 = [ i = 0 n - 1 J off ( i ) ] - J off ( k ) + J on ( k ) ,
J D 0 < J DTh < J D 1 .
V H = 1.1 V , V bo = 3.7 V , I H = 2 mA , R = 500 Ω
Δ V = V bo - V 0 8 = 3.7 - 2.1 8 = 0.2 V .
L = f ( D + d ) d ,

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