Abstract

A new technological approach makes fabrication of relief computer-generated focusing elements for IR radiation by use of a dry photopolymer recording material possible. The formation of a relief structure by self-development takes place in the dark, subsequent to the holographic illumination, without wet processing. Consequently these diffractive elements exhibit low surface scattering. The formation of a surface wave of the monomer along the light–darkness boundary is observed for the first time to our knowledge and confirms the previously proposed thermodynamic model of the mechanism of the hologram formation in photopolymerizable layers. Dye-sensitized polymerization of acrylamide is found to produce nonlinearity of the relief recording. At least partial compensation of this nonlinearity is attained by the introduction of appropriate corrections into the computer-generated amplitude function. A diffraction efficiency of ~ 55% is obtained for CO2 laser radiation (λ = 10.6 μm).

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).
  2. V. S. Solovjev, Yu. B. Boiko, “Recording relief representation on liquid photopolymerizable compositions,” Comput. Opt. No. 8, 74–76 (1990) (in Russian).
  3. S. Calixto, “Dry polymer for holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3904–3910 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, “Photopolymers for holography and waveguide applications,” in Polymers for Light wave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 145–169.
  5. F. P. Shvartsman, “Dry photopolymer embossing,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, B. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 383–391 (1991).
  6. Yu. B. Boiko, “Volume holographic optics recording in photopolymerizable layers,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 318–327 (1991).
  7. Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, V. V. Shilov, “Photopolymerization studies by Michelson interferometer,” Rep. 2155 (15.09.1986) (Ukraine Science and Research Institute of Science and Technical Information, Kiev, Ukraine, 1986).
  8. N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, “Real-time bleaching of methylene blue or thionine sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1196–1200 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Carre, D.-J. Lougnot, “A photochemical study of Methylene Blue/acrylamide system in view of its use for holographic recording under red illumination,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 487–490 (1988).
  10. N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. P. Fouassier, P. Jacques, D.-J. Lougnot, “Laser spectroscopy as a tool for the investigation of polymerization photoinitiation efficiency,” J. Radiat. Curing 10, 9–19 (1983).
  12. Yu. B. Boiko, V. Yu. Mironchenko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, “Volume holograms in liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 258–265 (1991).
  13. Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, “Optical recording of periodical structures in photopolymerizable layers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 492–495 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  14. D.-J. Lougnot, C. N. Turk, “Photopolymers for holographic recording. III. Time modulated illumination and thermal posteffect,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 30, 2715–2723 (1992).
  15. W. S. Colburn, K. A. Haines, “Volume hologram formation in photopolymer materials,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1636–1641 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gollinick, eds., Vol. 12 of Wiley Series in Photochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 201–281.
    [Crossref]

1992 (1)

D.-J. Lougnot, C. N. Turk, “Photopolymers for holographic recording. III. Time modulated illumination and thermal posteffect,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 30, 2715–2723 (1992).

1991 (2)

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
[Crossref]

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, “Real-time bleaching of methylene blue or thionine sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1196–1200 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. S. Solovjev, Yu. B. Boiko, “Recording relief representation on liquid photopolymerizable compositions,” Comput. Opt. No. 8, 74–76 (1990) (in Russian).

1988 (1)

C. Carre, D.-J. Lougnot, “A photochemical study of Methylene Blue/acrylamide system in view of its use for holographic recording under red illumination,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 487–490 (1988).

1987 (1)

S. Calixto, “Dry polymer for holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3904–3910 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. P. Fouassier, P. Jacques, D.-J. Lougnot, “Laser spectroscopy as a tool for the investigation of polymerization photoinitiation efficiency,” J. Radiat. Curing 10, 9–19 (1983).

1981 (1)

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, “Optical recording of periodical structures in photopolymerizable layers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 492–495 (1981).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Boiko, Yu. B.

V. S. Solovjev, Yu. B. Boiko, “Recording relief representation on liquid photopolymerizable compositions,” Comput. Opt. No. 8, 74–76 (1990) (in Russian).

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, “Optical recording of periodical structures in photopolymerizable layers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 492–495 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yu. B. Boiko, V. Yu. Mironchenko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, “Volume holograms in liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 258–265 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, “Volume holographic optics recording in photopolymerizable layers,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 318–327 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, V. V. Shilov, “Photopolymerization studies by Michelson interferometer,” Rep. 2155 (15.09.1986) (Ukraine Science and Research Institute of Science and Technical Information, Kiev, Ukraine, 1986).

Calixto, S.

S. Calixto, “Dry polymer for holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3904–3910 (1987).
[Crossref]

Capolla, N.

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
[Crossref]

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, “Real-time bleaching of methylene blue or thionine sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1196–1200 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carre, C.

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Carre, D.-J. Lougnot, “A photochemical study of Methylene Blue/acrylamide system in view of its use for holographic recording under red illumination,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 487–490 (1988).

Chandross, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gollinick, eds., Vol. 12 of Wiley Series in Photochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 201–281.
[Crossref]

Colburn, W. S.

Dilung, I. I.

Yu. B. Boiko, V. Yu. Mironchenko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, “Volume holograms in liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 258–265 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

Fouassier, J. P.

J. P. Fouassier, P. Jacques, D.-J. Lougnot, “Laser spectroscopy as a tool for the investigation of polymerization photoinitiation efficiency,” J. Radiat. Curing 10, 9–19 (1983).

Granchak, V. M.

Yu. B. Boiko, V. Yu. Mironchenko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, “Volume holograms in liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 258–265 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

Haines, K. A.

Jacques, P.

J. P. Fouassier, P. Jacques, D.-J. Lougnot, “Laser spectroscopy as a tool for the investigation of polymerization photoinitiation efficiency,” J. Radiat. Curing 10, 9–19 (1983).

Lessard, R. A.

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
[Crossref]

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, “Real-time bleaching of methylene blue or thionine sensitized gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1196–1200 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lougnot, D.-J.

D.-J. Lougnot, C. N. Turk, “Photopolymers for holographic recording. III. Time modulated illumination and thermal posteffect,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 30, 2715–2723 (1992).

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Carre, D.-J. Lougnot, “A photochemical study of Methylene Blue/acrylamide system in view of its use for holographic recording under red illumination,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 487–490 (1988).

J. P. Fouassier, P. Jacques, D.-J. Lougnot, “Laser spectroscopy as a tool for the investigation of polymerization photoinitiation efficiency,” J. Radiat. Curing 10, 9–19 (1983).

Mironchenko, V. Yu.

Yu. B. Boiko, V. Yu. Mironchenko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, “Volume holograms in liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 258–265 (1991).

Monroe, B. M.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, “Photopolymers for holography and waveguide applications,” in Polymers for Light wave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 145–169.

Shilov, V. V.

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, V. V. Shilov, “Photopolymerization studies by Michelson interferometer,” Rep. 2155 (15.09.1986) (Ukraine Science and Research Institute of Science and Technical Information, Kiev, Ukraine, 1986).

Shvartsman, F. P.

F. P. Shvartsman, “Dry photopolymer embossing,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, B. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 383–391 (1991).

Sisakian, I. N.

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

Smothers, W. K.

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, “Photopolymers for holography and waveguide applications,” in Polymers for Light wave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 145–169.

Sojfer, V. A.

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

Solovjev, V. S.

V. S. Solovjev, Yu. B. Boiko, “Recording relief representation on liquid photopolymerizable compositions,” Comput. Opt. No. 8, 74–76 (1990) (in Russian).

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

Tikhonov, E. A.

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, “Optical recording of periodical structures in photopolymerizable layers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 492–495 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, V. V. Shilov, “Photopolymerization studies by Michelson interferometer,” Rep. 2155 (15.09.1986) (Ukraine Science and Research Institute of Science and Technical Information, Kiev, Ukraine, 1986).

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gollinick, eds., Vol. 12 of Wiley Series in Photochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 201–281.
[Crossref]

Turk, C. N.

D.-J. Lougnot, C. N. Turk, “Photopolymers for holographic recording. III. Time modulated illumination and thermal posteffect,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 30, 2715–2723 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Capolla, R. A. Lessard, D.-J. Lougnot, C. Carre, “Studies of the photoreduction of Methylene Blue in gelatin solutions and films in view of improving the holographic recording process at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 326–330 (1991).
[Crossref]

Comput. Opt. No. (1)

V. S. Solovjev, Yu. B. Boiko, “Recording relief representation on liquid photopolymerizable compositions,” Comput. Opt. No. 8, 74–76 (1990) (in Russian).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Carre, D.-J. Lougnot, “A photochemical study of Methylene Blue/acrylamide system in view of its use for holographic recording under red illumination,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 487–490 (1988).

J. Polym. Sci. Part A (1)

D.-J. Lougnot, C. N. Turk, “Photopolymers for holographic recording. III. Time modulated illumination and thermal posteffect,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A 30, 2715–2723 (1992).

J. Radiat. Curing (1)

J. P. Fouassier, P. Jacques, D.-J. Lougnot, “Laser spectroscopy as a tool for the investigation of polymerization photoinitiation efficiency,” J. Radiat. Curing 10, 9–19 (1983).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, “Optical recording of periodical structures in photopolymerizable layers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 492–495 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive-index image recording systems,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gollinick, eds., Vol. 12 of Wiley Series in Photochemistry (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 201–281.
[Crossref]

Yu. B. Boiko, V. Yu. Mironchenko, V. M. Granchak, I. I. Dilung, “Volume holograms in liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 258–265 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, V. S. Solovjev, V. M. Granchak, I. N. Sisakian, V. A. Sojfer, I. I. Dilung, “Relief holograms recording on liquid photopolymerizable layers,” in Three-Dimensional Holography: Science, Culture, Education, T. H. Jeong, V. B. Markov, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1238, 253–257 (1991).

B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, “Photopolymers for holography and waveguide applications,” in Polymers for Light wave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 145–169.

F. P. Shvartsman, “Dry photopolymer embossing,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, B. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 383–391 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, “Volume holographic optics recording in photopolymerizable layers,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 318–327 (1991).

Yu. B. Boiko, E. A. Tikhonov, V. V. Shilov, “Photopolymerization studies by Michelson interferometer,” Rep. 2155 (15.09.1986) (Ukraine Science and Research Institute of Science and Technical Information, Kiev, Ukraine, 1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: 1, reflector; 2, halogen lamp; 3, heat absorber; 4, collimating lens system; 5, collimated beam; 6, computer-generated amplitude mask; 7, dry photopolymer recording material.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resolution capability of relief formation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Monomer surface-wave formation: (a) initial state, (b) exposure, (c) dark development, (d) final relief response.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the intensity I on the relief profile (schematic representation): (a) weak dye bleaching (I = 1 mW/cm2), (b) evident dye bleaching (I = 4 mW/cm2), (c) strong dye bleaching (I = 8 mW/cm2), (d) distortion of zones borders (I = 12 mW/cm2), (e) distribution of intensity of the exposure light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nonlinear correction of the mask: representation of the amplitude function of the kinoform to be reproduced within the linear recording media (dashed curve); the function with introduced corrections of recording nonlinearity (solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase function of the kinoform [two-dimensional representation, with theoretically calculated (curve 1) and experimentally obtained (curve 2) values] for recording intensity I = 4 mW/cm2 (i.e., with evident dye bleaching).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase function of the kinoform (curve 1, theoretical; curve 2, experimental) obtained for the recording intensity I = 2 mW/cm2 (i.e., with weak dye bleaching).

Equations (5)

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MB * + amine MB · - + amine · + ,
amine · + amine · + H + ,
amine · + amine · } + AA polymer ,
MB · - + O 2 regeneration of MB .
MB * B + AA oxydo - reduction ( MB · - + monomer - derived radicals ) .

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