Abstract

We present the results of measurements of optical refraction angles from photographs of the Moon taken from the orbital station Mir. We made estimations of rms fluctuations of refraction angles and of the characteristics of multipath propagation.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).
  2. R. L. White, S. W. Thurman, F. A. Barnes, “Autonomous satellite navigation using observations of starlight atmospheric refraction,” Navigation 32, 317–333 (Winter1985–86).
  3. R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory “Copernicus” and deduction of tropospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Atmospheric density-profile disturbances from satellite refraction measurements,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 420–424 (1981).
  5. G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).
  6. S. V. Sokolovskiy, “A model of the planetary refraction in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 339–344 (1991).

1991 (1)

S. V. Sokolovskiy, “A model of the planetary refraction in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 339–344 (1991).

1987 (1)

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

1983 (1)

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory “Copernicus” and deduction of tropospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Atmospheric density-profile disturbances from satellite refraction measurements,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 420–424 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

Barnes, F. A.

R. L. White, S. W. Thurman, F. A. Barnes, “Autonomous satellite navigation using observations of starlight atmospheric refraction,” Navigation 32, 317–333 (Winter1985–86).

Grechko, G. M.

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

Gurvich, A. S.

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

Kan, V.

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

Lyakhov, V. A.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

Polidan, R. S.

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory “Copernicus” and deduction of tropospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Savchenko, S. A.

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

Sokolovskiy, S. V.

S. V. Sokolovskiy, “A model of the planetary refraction in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 339–344 (1991).

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Atmospheric density-profile disturbances from satellite refraction measurements,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 420–424 (1981).

Tanner, W. E.

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory “Copernicus” and deduction of tropospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thurman, S. W.

R. L. White, S. W. Thurman, F. A. Barnes, “Autonomous satellite navigation using observations of starlight atmospheric refraction,” Navigation 32, 317–333 (Winter1985–86).

Volkov, A. A.

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

White, R. L.

R. L. White, S. W. Thurman, F. A. Barnes, “Autonomous satellite navigation using observations of starlight atmospheric refraction,” Navigation 32, 317–333 (Winter1985–86).

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory “Copernicus” and deduction of tropospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Opt. (1)

S. V. Sokolovskiy, “A model of the planetary refraction in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 339–344 (1991).

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (3)

A. A. Volkov, G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. Kan, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Recovery of the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere from refraction measurements made from the Salute-7 station,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 23, 914–915 (1987).

S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Atmospheric density-profile disturbances from satellite refraction measurements,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 420–424 (1981).

G. M. Grechko, A. S. Gurvich, V. A. Lyakhov, S. A. Savchenko, S. V. Sokolovskiy, “Results of investigation of refraction during the third expedition on the Salute-6 orbiter,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 17, 835–841 (1981).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. L. White, W. E. Tanner, R. S. Polidan, “Star line-of-sight refraction observations from the orbiting astronomical observatory “Copernicus” and deduction of tropospheric structure in the tropical region,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8535–8542 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Navigation (1)

R. L. White, S. W. Thurman, F. A. Barnes, “Autonomous satellite navigation using observations of starlight atmospheric refraction,” Navigation 32, 317–333 (Winter1985–86).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the observations of refraction from an extraterrestrial light source (the Moon) from space.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Layout of the measurements of refraction angles from the contour of a photograph of the Moon.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Functions φ(ψ), measured from seven photographs of the Moon. To obtain the absolute values of φ and ψ, use Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Functions Δ∊(φ) = ∊(φ) − ¯ (φ), measured from seven photographs of the Moon. To obtain the absolute values of ∊ and φ, use Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated function Dz), averaged for all data (solid curve) with the spread ±1sigma value (dashed curves).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Computed Data for the Seven Photographs of the Moona

Equations (5)

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[ φ ( ψ + ψ * ) - φ ¯ ( ψ ) ] 2 d ψ = min ,             φ * = φ ¯ ( ψ * ) ,
m = 1 ψ max - ψ min i = 1 N Δ ψ i ,
Δ φ = 1 N i = 1 N Δ φ i ,
D ( Δ φ ) = 1 φ max - φ min φ min φ max [ ( φ ) - ˜ ( φ , Δ φ ) ] 2 d φ ,
˜ ( φ , Δ φ ) = 1 Δ φ φ - Δ φ / 2 φ + Δ φ / 2 ( φ ) d φ , ( φ ) = ( φ ) / ¯ ( φ ) .

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