Abstract

A novel method for detection of ballistic light and rejection of unwanted diffusive light to image structures inside highly scattering media is demonstrated. Degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in Rhodamine 6G is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore lost memory of the structures inside the scattering medium. We present preliminary results that determine the nature of the DFWM grating, confirm the coherence time of the laser, prove the phase-conjugate nature of the signal beam, and determine the dependence of the signal (reflectivity) on dye concentration and laser intensity. Finally, we have obtained images of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye. These imaging experiments demonstrate the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Based on our results, the use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic light in optical mammography appears to hold great promise for improving the current state of the art.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  30. R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. J. Hoffman, “Thermally induced degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 552–562 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. J. O. Tocho, W. Sibbett, D. J. Bradley, “Picosecond phase-conjugate reflection from organic dye saturable absorbers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 122–126 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, A. E. Siegman, “Fourth-order partial coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources,” J. Opt. Soc Am. B 3, 1295–1304 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  38. D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, “Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 2, 58–60 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

J. C. Hebden, K. S. Wong, “Time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 372–380 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, “Medical transillumination imaging using short-pulse diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 574–579 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, L. L. Kalpaxis, R. R. Alfano, “Snake light tomography: ultrafast time-gated snake light 2D and 3D images of objects in biomedical media,” Opt. Photon. News, 4, (10)23–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, “Thermal and acoustic effects in optical phase conjugation in Rhodamine 6G solutions with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 536–544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bashkansky, J. Reintjes, “Imaging through a strong scattering medium with nonlinear-optical field-coherent techniques,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2132–2134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

E. Leith, H. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, R. Masri, J. Rudd, J. Valdmanis, “Electronic holography and speckle methods for imaging through tissue using femtosecond gated pulses,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4204–4210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in highly scattering media using femtosecond second-harmonic-generation cross-correlation time gating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1019–1021 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Z. Zang, S. A. Ahmed, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging optics hidden in scattering media using a fluorescence-absorption technique,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1252–1254 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Leith, C. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Lopez, P. C. Sun, D. Dilworth, “Imaging through scattering media using spatial incoherence techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1820–1822 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, “Time-gated imaging through scattering media using stimulated Raman amplification,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1868–1870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1989

1986

R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, A. E. Siegman, “Fourth-order partial coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources,” J. Opt. Soc Am. B 3, 1295–1304 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Hoffman, “Thermally induced degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 552–562 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fijimoto, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, C. A. Piliafito, R. Margolis, A. Oseroff, “Femtosecond optical ranging in biological systems,” Opt. Lett. 11, 150–152 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation of KrF laser radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 557–559 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

J. O. Tocho, W. Sibbett, D. J. Bradley, “Picosecond phase-conjugate reflection from organic dye saturable absorbers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 122–126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high-resolution spectroscopy by resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Abramson, N. H.

N. H. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse, light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1221 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, C.

Adler, C. L.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S. A.

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arons, E.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baldek, P.

Bashkansky, M.

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1221 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, D. M.

Bradley, D. J.

J. O. Tocho, W. Sibbett, D. J. Bradley, “Picosecond phase-conjugate reflection from organic dye saturable absorbers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 122–126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Caro, R. G.

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation of KrF laser radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 557–559 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Costela, A.

A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, “Thermal and acoustic effects in optical phase conjugation in Rhodamine 6G solutions with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 536–544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

De Silvestri, S.

Dilworth, D.

Dreier, T.

Duncan, M. D.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, “Time-gated imaging through scattering media using stimulated Raman amplification,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1868–1870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, N. P.

Farrow, R. L.

Feinberg, J.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, “Time-resolved holography,” Nature (London) 351, 378–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Figuera, J. M.

A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, “Thermal and acoustic effects in optical phase conjugation in Rhodamine 6G solutions with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 536–544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fijimoto, J. G.

Florido, F.

A. Costela, J. M. Figuera, F. Florido, “Thermal and acoustic effects in optical phase conjugation in Rhodamine 6G solutions with nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 536–544 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galland, P.

P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, L. L. Kalpaxis, R. R. Alfano, “Snake light tomography: ultrafast time-gated snake light 2D and 3D images of objects in biomedical media,” Opt. Photon. News, 4, (10)23–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

Gower, M. C.

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in absorbing media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1376–1380 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Phase conjugation of KrF laser radiation,” Opt. Lett. 6, 557–559 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Caro, M. C. Gower, “Amplified phase conjugate reflection of KrF radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 855–857 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafson, E. K.

R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, A. E. Siegman, “Fourth-order partial coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources,” J. Opt. Soc Am. B 3, 1295–1304 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, L. L. Kalpaxis, R. R. Alfano, “Snake light tomography: ultrafast time-gated snake light 2D and 3D images of objects in biomedical media,” Opt. Photon. News, 4, (10)23–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Ho, P. Baldek, K. S. Wong, K. M. Yoo, D. Lee, R. R. Alfano, “Time dynamics of photon migration in semiopaque random media,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2304–2310 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, H. J.

H. J. Hoffman, “Thermally induced degenerate four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 552–562 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Garrett, H. J. Hoffman, “Thermally induced phase-conjugation efficiency and beam-quality studies,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 617–623 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Jarlman, O.

Kalpaxis, L. L.

P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, L. L. Kalpaxis, R. R. Alfano, “Snake light tomography: ultrafast time-gated snake light 2D and 3D images of objects in biomedical media,” Opt. Photon. News, 4, (10)23–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R. A.

Lam, J. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high-resolution spectroscopy by resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Lee, D.

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Liang, X.

P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, L. L. Kalpaxis, R. R. Alfano, “Snake light tomography: ultrafast time-gated snake light 2D and 3D images of objects in biomedical media,” Opt. Photon. News, 4, (10)23–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, “Observation of amplified reflection by degenerate four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Opt. Lett. 2, 58–60 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high-resolution spectroscopy by resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lind, R. C.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high-resolution spectroscopy by resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Mahon, R.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, “Time-gated imaging through scattering media using stimulated Raman amplification,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1868–1870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, R.

Masri, R.

Moon, J. A.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murti, Y. V. G. S.

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R. Vijaya, Y. V. G. S. Murti, T. A. Prasada Rao, “Optical phase conjugation in laser dyes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 575–586 (1992).
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J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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Shih, M.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)19–23 (1993).
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R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high-resolution spectroscopy by resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

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D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P. C.

Sun, P.-C.

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)19–23 (1993).
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Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
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J. O. Tocho, W. Sibbett, D. J. Bradley, “Picosecond phase-conjugate reflection from organic dye saturable absorbers,” Opt. Commun. 34, 122–126 (1980).
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E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)19–23 (1993).
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L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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Wong, K. S.

Xing, Q.

Yoo, K. M.

Zang, Z.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1221 (1989).
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K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1221 (1989).
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J. Opt. Soc Am. B

R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, A. E. Siegman, “Fourth-order partial coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources,” J. Opt. Soc Am. B 3, 1295–1304 (1986).
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Opt. Photon. News

P. P. Ho, L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, L. L. Kalpaxis, R. R. Alfano, “Snake light tomography: ultrafast time-gated snake light 2D and 3D images of objects in biomedical media,” Opt. Photon. News, 4, (10)23–27 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Leith, E. Arons, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, G. Vossler, “Electronic holography for imaging through tissue,” Opt. Photon. News 4, (10)19–23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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R. Vijaya, Y. V. G. S. Murti, T. A. Prasada Rao, “Optical phase conjugation in laser dyes,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 575–586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Science

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, “Optical time-of-flight and absorbance imaging of biological media,” Science 259, 1463–1466 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, “Phase conjugation and high-resolution spectroscopy by resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus; the angle between the pump and probe beam is 22°. SHG, second-harmonic generator; M’s, fully reflecting mirrors. The probe beam splitter (B.S.) was 10% reflecting at 45° incidence for s-polarized light. The signal beam splitter was 30% reflecting for p-polarized light at 45° incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-conjugate signal as a function of delay between the forward pump and probe beams. The experimental coherence time of 25 ps FWHM is expected based on the laser bandwidth of 1.4 cm−1. This demonstrates the ability of DFWM to provide an ultrafast gate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-conjugate signal versus delay between grating formation and readout. This optical delay is controlled by movement of the end mirror as shown in Fig. 1. The fast signal decay is indicative of a population grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectivity of the phase-conjugate mirror as a function of the forward pump intensity. The initial quadratic dependence of reflectivity on forward pump intensity as well as the saturation behavior is expected based on population grating theoretical considerations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase-conjugate signal as a function of dye concentration for a geometry slightly altered from Fig. 1 (see text for discussion). The forward pump-beam intensity was 64 MW/cm2, and the probe-beam intensity was 0.45 MW/cm2. The decay of the signal at high dye concentrations is due to probe-beam absorption.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Series of four images proving the phase-conjugate nature of the signal beam. Images a and b have a 99.5% reflecting mirror in place of the dye cell. Images c and d are with the phase-conjugate mirror. Images b and d have a distorting cylindrical lens placed in the probe beam. Images a and c have no distorting optics. See text for full discussion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Series of four images of 200-μm cross hairs. Image a has no cell in the probe beam. Image b has a cell filled with water placed in the probe beam. Image c is a single-shot image of the cross hairs through a suspension of whole milk in water. Image d is a 50-shot average of the cross hairs through the suspension. See text for full discussion.

Equations (2)

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P s ( 3 ) ( k s = - k p , ω ) = A ( E f E p * ) E b + B ( E b E p * ) E f + C ( E f E b ) E p * ,
η 2 ( τ c / τ p ) + exp ( - π τ d 2 / τ c 2 ) .

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