Abstract

The noise in single-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) spectroscopy that employs a broadband modeless dye laser (MDL) is examined and the results are compared with those of a conventional dye laser. The noise of the dye-laser, the nonresonant CARS, and the resonant N2 CARS signals are determined. The use of a MDL is shown to result in substantially reduced CARS noise when the CARS signal is generated with a single-mode pump laser, but only a marginal reduction of noise is observed with a multimode pump source The noise measurements are compared with theoretical predictions that are based on models that assume modes of random amplitudes and phases in the multimode laser sources. The combination of a MDL and a single-mode pump laser is shown to increase the precision of single-shot N2 CARS temperature measurements.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.
  3. D. A. Greenhalgh, “Quantitative CARS spectroscopy,” in Advances in Non-Linear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.
  4. W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengston, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2772–2777 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–109 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Snelling, T. Parameswaran, G. J. Smallwood, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband CARS signals,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4298–4302 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–313 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Greenhalgh, S. T. Whittley, “Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 907–913 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. E. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Kröll, M. Aldén, T. Berglind, R. J. Hall, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband Raman resonant CARS with single and multimode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1068–1073 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. J. Hall, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Noise properties of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with multimode pump sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1637–1641 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kröll, D. Sandell, “Influence of laser-mode statistics on noise in nonlinear-optical processes—application to single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1910–1926 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, P. Ewart, “Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1008–1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Ewart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Eckbreth, “Crossed beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. L. Farrow, L. A. Rahn, “Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with Nd:YAG pump lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 903–907 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, “The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiplex USED CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, “Effects of laser field statistics on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy intensities,” Opt. Lett. 9, 223–225 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. J. Hall, “Theoretical analysis of non-thermal pump effects in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 319–327 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, J. S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 505–508.

1992

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, “The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiplex USED CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1986

1985

1984

1981

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. C. Eckbreth, “Crossed beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

Anderson, T. J.

Bengston, P.-E.

Berglind, T.

Bouchardy, P.

Box, G. E. P.

G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, J. S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 505–508.

Druet, S. A. J.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Simultaneous rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy with arbitrary pump-Stokes spectral separation,” Opt. Lett. 11, 496–498 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Crossed beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

Edner, H.

Ewart, P.

Farrow, R. L.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

Hall, R. J.

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, T. Berglind, R. J. Hall, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband Raman resonant CARS with single and multimode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1068–1073 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Hall, “Theoretical analysis of non-thermal pump effects in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 319–327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Noise properties of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with multimode pump sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1637–1641 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

Hunter, J. S.

G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, J. S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 505–508.

Hunter, W. G.

G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, J. S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 505–508.

Kröll, S.

Lange, B.

B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, “The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiplex USED CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

Lucht, R. P.

Mueller, R. E.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2772–2777 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, T.

Pealat, M.

Rahn, L. A.

Roh, W. B.

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sandell, D.

Sawchuk, R. A.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–109 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2772–2777 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P. W.

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Skippon, S. M.

Smallwood, G. J.

Snelling, D. R.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–109 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, T. Parameswaran, G. J. Smallwood, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband CARS signals,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4298–4302 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2772–2777 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Snowdon, P.

Stufflebeam, J. H.

A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Taran, J. P. E.

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. E. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Whittley, S. T.

Wolfrum, J.

B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, “The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiplex USED CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2772–2777 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Greenhalgh, S. T. Whittley, “Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 907–913 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. E. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–109 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, T. Parameswaran, G. J. Smallwood, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband CARS signals,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4298–4302 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, P. Ewart, “Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1008–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengston, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kröll, M. Aldén, T. Berglind, R. J. Hall, “Noise characteristics of single-shot broadband Raman resonant CARS with single and multimode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1068–1073 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, “The impact of laser field statistics in determination of temperature and concentration by multiplex USED CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 53–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, J. P. E. Taran, “Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 174–176 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Crossed beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids

A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

P. Ewart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

R. J. Hall, “Theoretical analysis of non-thermal pump effects in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 319–327 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, T. Parameswaran, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single-shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, New York, 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

D. A. Greenhalgh, “Quantitative CARS spectroscopy,” in Advances in Non-Linear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.

G. E. P. Box, W. G. Hunter, J. S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 505–508.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dye laser noise (single standard deviation) and spectrum obtained with multimode pump laser excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CARS spectrum and noise (single standard deviation) obtained with single-mode pump laser excitation. Top: nonresonant CO2 CARS spectrum and noise. Bottom: resonant N2 CARS flame spectrum (~ 1600 K) and noise. The higher-resolution pump-convolved theoretical CARS spectrum identifies the Raman resonances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CARS spectrum and noise (single standard deviation) obtained with multimode laser excitation. Top: nonresonant CO2 CARS spectrum and noise. Bottom: resonant N2 CARS flame (~ 1600 K) and noise.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical and observed resonant N2 CARS noise. The theoretical noise, which was calculated with Eq. (5), is shown for two different assumed Stokes mode spacings.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Observed Noise (Percent Standard Deviation) of MDL, CDL, Nonresonant CARS Signal, and Resonant N2 CARS Signal

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X i j = S i j / S ¯ i = ( S i j / j S i j ) × M ,
Y i j = X i j / i = N L N U X i j .
σ N 2 = σ D 2 + σ C 2 .
σ D 2 = σ 0 2 + k C ,
σ l = ( k l k 2 ) 1 / 2 / k l k ,

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