Abstract

The Rochester Institute of Technology-Dupont dataset [Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991)] has been used to analyze the uniformity of seven color metrics, developed after CIELUV and CIELAB, with methods similar to those previously applied to several other classical datasets [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1247–1253 (1992)]. Significant performance improvements over CIELAB were found with several CIELAB-based metrics, mainly with the model recently proposed by Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage Technical Committee 1-29 [Color Res. Appl. 18, 137–139 (1993)]. Several significant differences found between some pairs of metrics became insignificant when we selected from the Rochester Institute of Technology-Dupont dataset pairs of samples with only chromaticity differences.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Colorimetry, CIE Publ. 15.2 (Central Bureau of the CIE, Vienna, 1986).
  2. A. R. Robertson, “Historical development of CIE recommended color difference equations,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 167–170 (1990).
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  3. R. G. Kuehni, “Industrial color difference: progress and problems,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 261–265 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Komatsubara, G. Kawakami, “Research on the application of color-difference formulas to industry,” Stud. Color 35, 6–20 (1988).
  5. A. R. Robertson, “The CIE 1976 color-difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 2, 7–11 (1977).
  6. M. R. Pointer, “A comparison of the CIE 1976 colour spaces,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 108–118 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hita, M. Melgosa, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Uniformity study of color representation systems ATD and ATDN,” Opt. Pura Apl. 20, 39–47 (1987).
  8. F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. H. Alman, “CIE Technical Committee 1-29 industrial color-difference evaluation progress report,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 137–139 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Robertson, “Colour differences,” Die Farbe 29, 273–298 (1981).
  12. Parametric Effects in Colour-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 101 (Central Bureau of the CIE, Vienna, 1993).
  13. R. G. Kuehni, “Advances in color-difference formulas,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 19–23 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. S. Berns, “Synopsis of round table discussion on colorimetry in industry,” in Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the International Colour Association, A. Nemsics, J. Schanda, eds. (Technical University of Budapest and Hungarian National Colour Committee, Budapest, Hungary, 1993), Vol. A, pp. 185–187.
  15. A. R. Robertson, “CIE Guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).
  16. M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Witt, “Three-dimensional threshold of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Some classical color differences calculated with new formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1247–1253 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “A test of TC 1-29 color-difference formula using some classical datasets (preliminary report),” in Proceedings of the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM 93) (Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, 1993), Vol. 3, pp. 37–38.
  23. H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. H. Kruskal, W. A. Wallis, “Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 47, 583–621 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. G. Cochran, “The distribution of the largest of a set of estimated variances as a fraction of their total,” Ann. Eng. (London) 11, 47–61 (1941).
  26. R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching, Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. S. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the International Colour Association, A. Nemsics, J. Schanda, eds. (Technical University of Budapest and Hungarian National Colour Committee, Budapest, Hungary, 1993), Vol. B, pp. 189–192.
  28. J. Romero, J. A. García, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Color difference formulas tested by use with chromatic discrimination data and new formulas,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4697–4702 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. A. García, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Improved formula for evaluating color-differential thresholds,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6292–6298 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. L. MacAdam, “Specification of small chromaticity differences in daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 18–26 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Color-difference formulae,” Opt. Pura Apl. 23, 137–145 (1990).
  32. E. Coates, R. C. Kiszka, J. R. Provost, B. Rigg, “The accuracy of colour-difference equations in relation to perceived colour differences,” Proc. Colour 73, 300–302 (1973).
  33. C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 2—Performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Sachs, Applied Statistics, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. McDonald, “A review of the relationship between visual and instrumental assessment of colour difference, part 2,” J. Oil Colour Chem. Assoc. 65, 93–106 (1982).

1993 (1)

D. H. Alman, “CIE Technical Committee 1-29 industrial color-difference evaluation progress report,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 137–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Color-difference formulae,” Opt. Pura Apl. 23, 137–145 (1990).

A. R. Robertson, “Historical development of CIE recommended color difference equations,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 167–170 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Industrial color difference: progress and problems,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 261–265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Romero, J. A. García, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Color difference formulas tested by use with chromatic discrimination data and new formulas,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4697–4702 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

H. Komatsubara, G. Kawakami, “Research on the application of color-difference formulas to industry,” Stud. Color 35, 6–20 (1988).

1987 (4)

E. Hita, M. Melgosa, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Uniformity study of color representation systems ATD and ATDN,” Opt. Pura Apl. 20, 39–47 (1987).

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional threshold of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 2—Performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

R. G. Kuehni, “Advances in color-difference formulas,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 19–23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “A review of the relationship between visual and instrumental assessment of colour difference, part 2,” J. Oil Colour Chem. Assoc. 65, 93–106 (1982).

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

A. Robertson, “Colour differences,” Die Farbe 29, 273–298 (1981).

M. R. Pointer, “A comparison of the CIE 1976 colour spaces,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 108–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching, Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. R. Robertson, “CIE Guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

1977 (1)

A. R. Robertson, “The CIE 1976 color-difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 2, 7–11 (1977).

1973 (1)

E. Coates, R. C. Kiszka, J. R. Provost, B. Rigg, “The accuracy of colour-difference equations in relation to perceived colour differences,” Proc. Colour 73, 300–302 (1973).

1952 (1)

W. H. Kruskal, W. A. Wallis, “Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 47, 583–621 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

1941 (1)

W. G. Cochran, “The distribution of the largest of a set of estimated variances as a fraction of their total,” Ann. Eng. (London) 11, 47–61 (1941).

Alder, C.

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alman, D. H.

D. H. Alman, “CIE Technical Committee 1-29 industrial color-difference evaluation progress report,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 137–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Synopsis of round table discussion on colorimetry in industry,” in Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the International Colour Association, A. Nemsics, J. Schanda, eds. (Technical University of Budapest and Hungarian National Colour Committee, Budapest, Hungary, 1993), Vol. A, pp. 185–187.

R. S. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the International Colour Association, A. Nemsics, J. Schanda, eds. (Technical University of Budapest and Hungarian National Colour Committee, Budapest, Hungary, 1993), Vol. B, pp. 189–192.

Chaing, K. P.

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. F.

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coates, E.

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Coates, R. C. Kiszka, J. R. Provost, B. Rigg, “The accuracy of colour-difference equations in relation to perceived colour differences,” Proc. Colour 73, 300–302 (1973).

Cochran, W. G.

W. G. Cochran, “The distribution of the largest of a set of estimated variances as a fraction of their total,” Ann. Eng. (London) 11, 47–61 (1941).

Fielder, G. H.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

García, J. A.

Hita, E.

J. A. García, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Improved formula for evaluating color-differential thresholds,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6292–6298 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Some classical color differences calculated with new formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1247–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Color-difference formulae,” Opt. Pura Apl. 23, 137–145 (1990).

J. Romero, J. A. García, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Color difference formulas tested by use with chromatic discrimination data and new formulas,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4697–4702 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hita, M. Melgosa, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Uniformity study of color representation systems ATD and ATDN,” Opt. Pura Apl. 20, 39–47 (1987).

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “A test of TC 1-29 color-difference formula using some classical datasets (preliminary report),” in Proceedings of the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM 93) (Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, 1993), Vol. 3, pp. 37–38.

Indow, T.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez del Barco, L.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Some classical color differences calculated with new formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1247–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. García, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Improved formula for evaluating color-differential thresholds,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6292–6298 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Color-difference formulae,” Opt. Pura Apl. 23, 137–145 (1990).

J. Romero, J. A. García, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Color difference formulas tested by use with chromatic discrimination data and new formulas,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4697–4702 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hita, M. Melgosa, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Uniformity study of color representation systems ATD and ATDN,” Opt. Pura Apl. 20, 39–47 (1987).

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “A test of TC 1-29 color-difference formula using some classical datasets (preliminary report),” in Proceedings of the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM 93) (Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, 1993), Vol. 3, pp. 37–38.

Kawakami, G.

H. Komatsubara, G. Kawakami, “Research on the application of color-difference formulas to industry,” Stud. Color 35, 6–20 (1988).

Khalili, A. A.

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kiszka, R. C.

E. Coates, R. C. Kiszka, J. R. Provost, B. Rigg, “The accuracy of colour-difference equations in relation to perceived colour differences,” Proc. Colour 73, 300–302 (1973).

Komatsubara, H.

H. Komatsubara, G. Kawakami, “Research on the application of color-difference formulas to industry,” Stud. Color 35, 6–20 (1988).

Kruskal, W. H.

W. H. Kruskal, W. A. Wallis, “Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 47, 583–621 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “Industrial color difference: progress and problems,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 261–265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Advances in color-difference formulas,” Color Res. Appl. 7, 19–23 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, W. A.

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 2—Performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Mann, H. B.

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “A review of the relationship between visual and instrumental assessment of colour difference, part 2,” J. Oil Colour Chem. Assoc. 65, 93–106 (1982).

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching, Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Some classical color differences calculated with new formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1247–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Color-difference formulae,” Opt. Pura Apl. 23, 137–145 (1990).

E. Hita, M. Melgosa, J. Romero, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Uniformity study of color representation systems ATD and ATDN,” Opt. Pura Apl. 20, 39–47 (1987).

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “A test of TC 1-29 color-difference formula using some classical datasets (preliminary report),” in Proceedings of the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM 93) (Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, 1993), Vol. 3, pp. 37–38.

Pérez, M. M.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “A test of TC 1-29 color-difference formula using some classical datasets (preliminary report),” in Proceedings of the European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM 93) (Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain, 1993), Vol. 3, pp. 37–38.

Pointer, M. R.

M. R. Pointer, “A comparison of the CIE 1976 colour spaces,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 108–118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Provost, J. R.

E. Coates, R. C. Kiszka, J. R. Provost, B. Rigg, “The accuracy of colour-difference equations in relation to perceived colour differences,” Proc. Colour 73, 300–302 (1973).

Reniff, L.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 2—Performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126–132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Alder, K. P. Chaing, T. F. Chong, E. Coates, A. A. Khalili, B. Rigg, “Uniform chromaticity scales—new experimental data,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 98, 14–20 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Coates, R. C. Kiszka, J. R. Provost, B. Rigg, “The accuracy of colour-difference equations in relation to perceived colour differences,” Proc. Colour 73, 300–302 (1973).

Robertson, A.

A. Robertson, “Colour differences,” Die Farbe 29, 273–298 (1981).

Robertson, A. R.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, “Historical development of CIE recommended color difference equations,” Color Res. Appl. 15, 167–170 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE Guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149–151 (1978).

A. R. Robertson, “The CIE 1976 color-difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 2, 7–11 (1977).

Romero, J.

Sachs, L.

L. Sachs, Applied Statistics, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, G. D. Snyder, W. A. Larsen, “Performance testing of color-difference metrics using a color tolerance dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

von Grunau, M.

T. Indow, A. R. Robertson, M. von Grunau, G. H. Fielder, “Discrimination ellipsoids of aperture and simulated surface colors by matching and paired comparison,” Color Res. Appl. 17, 6–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, W. A.

W. H. Kruskal, W. A. Wallis, “Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 47, 583–621 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, D. R.

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Witt, K.

K. Witt, “Three-dimensional threshold of color-difference perceptibility in painted samples: variability of observers in four CIE color regions,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 128–134 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Eng. (London) (1)

W. G. Cochran, “The distribution of the largest of a set of estimated variances as a fraction of their total,” Ann. Eng. (London) 11, 47–61 (1941).

Ann. Math. Stat. (1)

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Approximate positions in the CIELAB diagram a*, b* for the 19 color centers analyzed in the RIT-Dupont20 dataset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship between the values of our parameter S2% with the RIT-Dupont dataset and the values of the four constants involved in the weighting functions of the TC1-29* model10: SC= K1 + K2 C*;SH = K3 + K4C*, where the values proposed by TC1-29* were K1 = K3 = 1, K2 = 0.039, and K4 = 0.009.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Assignment of Numbers, Names, and Zones Selected for the cdf-G* and cdf-G** Sets of Formulas for Each of the 19 Color Centers of the RIT-Dupont Dataseta

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Table 2 Weighted Arithmetic Mean ΔE and Coefficients of Variation σ% of the Color-Difference Pairs Corresponding to Each of the 19 Color Centersa Calculated for Each of the Nine Color Metrics

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Table 3 Parameters Indicating the Size of the Color Differences 〈ΔE〉, the Homogeneity S1%, and the Isotropy S2% for each Color Metric and the Entire RIT-Dupont Database a,b

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Table 4 Parameters Indicating the Size of the Color Differences 〈ΔE〉, the Homogeneity S1%, and the Isotropy S2% for each Color Metric and Part of the RIT-Dupont Database, a,b the Pairs Having only a Chromaticity Difference

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Table 5 Results of the Nonparametric H testa Applied to Test whether Several Different Sets of Color Metrics are Significantly Different

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Table 6 Results of the Nonparametric U Test a,b Applied to all Color-Metric Pairs Possible to Test Whether They Can be Considered Significantly Different

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E TC1 29 = [ ( Δ L * k L S L ) 2 + ( Δ C * k C S C ) 2 + ( Δ H * k H S H ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
S L = 1 , S C = 1 + 0.045 C a b * , S H = 1 + 0.015 C a b * .
S L = 1 , S C = 1 + 0.039 C a b * , S H = 1 + 0.009 C a b * .
weight = [ T 50 / ( UFL LFL ) ] .

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