Abstract

The thickness-dependent optical and thermal properties and the corresponding damage thresholds have been investigated by means of various photothermal techniques on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by the conventional techniques of reactive electron-beam evaporation and reactive low-voltage ion plating (RLVIP). Compared with the reactive-electron-beam-evaporated samples, the RLVIP films exhibit a higher absorption, lower damage threshold, better thermal conductivity, lower defect density, and an almost perfect stability under Ar+-laser irradiation. These results are correlated with data from a multimethod approach, and a mechanism is proposed to explain the low damage threshold for the RLVIP TiO2 films.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Bonnott, E. Pollotior, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. H. Guenther, “Optical thin films deposited by energetic partiele processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 344–355 (1993) and references therein.
  3. K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).
  5. E. M. Waddell, B. C. Monachan, K. L. Lewis, T. Wyatt-Davies, A. M. Pitt, “Cluster beam deposition for optical thin films,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 309–319 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. McMinn, S. Seitel, M. Babb, “Laser damage of YAG surfaces,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 189–210 (1989).
  7. C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, “Damage threshold study of ion beam sputtering coatings for a visible high repetition laser at LLNL,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 182–191 (1993).
  8. X. Tang, Z. X. Fan, “Effects of ion assisted deposition on optical properties of thin films,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 67–74 (1990).
  9. H. K. Pulker, M. Reinhold, “Reactive ion plating of optical films,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 100–105 (1989).
  10. A. Starke, H. Schink, J. Kolbe, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds and optical constants of ion planted and ion beam sputtered Al2O3 and HfO2 coatings for the ultraviolet,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 299–304 (1990).
  11. E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).
  12. A. J. Waldorf, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, L. M. Plante, “Optical coatings deposited by reactive ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5583–5593 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Balasubramanian, X. F. Han, K. H. Guenther, “Comparative study of titanium dioxide thin films produced by electron-beam evaporation and by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5594–5600 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric thin films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5640–5644 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. H. Guenther, “Improved oxide coatings by reactive ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 247–250.
  16. R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).
  17. Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Photothermal definition spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1334 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. C. Wundy, R. S. Hughes, C. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).
  23. Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schaefer, “In-situ investigation of laser conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).
  24. Z. L. Wu, L. H. Wei, P. K. Kuo, “Thermal transport studies of nanometric layer stacks by mirage detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 361–375 (1993).
  25. Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ ion laser irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 224–233 (1993).
  27. T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin film optical coatings—part I: experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041– 2052 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. J. Exarhos, N. J. Hess, “Spatially resolved densification of solution-deposited oxide films by laser irradiation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (Elsevier, Amsterdam, to be published).
  30. C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Hueppauff, K. Bange, B. Lengeler, “Density, thickness and interface roughness of SiO2, TiO2, and Ta2O5 films on BK-7 glasses analyzed by X-ray reflection,” Thin Solid Films 230, 191–198 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Windischman, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2431–2436 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. H. Guenther, J. K. Mclver, “The role of thermal conductivity in the pulsed laser damage sensitivity of optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 163, 203–214 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, C. Yamanaka, “Highly damage resistant, broad band, hard antireflection coating for high power lasers in the UV to near-IR wavelength regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 911–913 (1985).
  35. L. J. Shaw-Klein, S. J. Burns, S. D. Jacobs, “Model for laser damage dependence on thin film morphology,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3925–3929 (1993).
    [PubMed]

1993 (8)

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Hueppauff, K. Bange, B. Lengeler, “Density, thickness and interface roughness of SiO2, TiO2, and Ta2O5 films on BK-7 glasses analyzed by X-ray reflection,” Thin Solid Films 230, 191–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).

L. J. Shaw-Klein, S. J. Burns, S. D. Jacobs, “Model for laser damage dependence on thin film morphology,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3925–3929 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. J. Waldorf, J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, L. M. Plante, “Optical coatings deposited by reactive ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5583–5593 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Balasubramanian, X. F. Han, K. H. Guenther, “Comparative study of titanium dioxide thin films produced by electron-beam evaporation and by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5594–5600 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric thin films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5640–5644 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Windischman, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, M. Reinhold, “Reactive ion plating of optical films,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 100–105 (1989).

J. M. Bonnott, E. Pollotior, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. H. Guenther, J. K. Mclver, “The role of thermal conductivity in the pulsed laser damage sensitivity of optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 163, 203–214 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, C. Yamanaka, “Highly damage resistant, broad band, hard antireflection coating for high power lasers in the UV to near-IR wavelength regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 911–913 (1985).

1983 (2)

M. C. Wundy, R. S. Hughes, C. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Photothermal definition spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin film optical coatings—part I: experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041– 2052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

Allen, T. H.

Amer, N. M.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Photothermal definition spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, O.

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Arndt, J.

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ ion laser irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 224–233 (1993).

Babb, M.

T. McMinn, S. Seitel, M. Babb, “Laser damage of YAG surfaces,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 189–210 (1989).

Balasubramamian, K.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Balasubramanian, K.

Bange, K.

E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Hueppauff, K. Bange, B. Lengeler, “Density, thickness and interface roughness of SiO2, TiO2, and Ta2O5 films on BK-7 glasses analyzed by X-ray reflection,” Thin Solid Films 230, 191–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Becker, O.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Boccara, A. C.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Photothermal definition spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonnott, J. M.

Borgogno, J. P.

Burns, D.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. J.

Carniglia, C.

M. C. Wundy, R. S. Hughes, C. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

Chow, R.

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Ebert, J.

A. Starke, H. Schink, J. Kolbe, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds and optical constants of ion planted and ion beam sputtered Al2O3 and HfO2 coatings for the ultraviolet,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 299–304 (1990).

Eckhardt, P.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Edgell, J.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Exarhos, G. J.

G. J. Exarhos, N. J. Hess, “Spatially resolved densification of solution-deposited oxide films by laser irradiation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (Elsevier, Amsterdam, to be published).

Fan, Z. X.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schaefer, “In-situ investigation of laser conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).

X. Tang, Z. X. Fan, “Effects of ion assisted deposition on optical properties of thin films,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 67–74 (1990).

Feile, R.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Fournier, D.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, “Photothermal definition spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1334 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedrich, K.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

A. H. Guenther, J. K. Mclver, “The role of thermal conductivity in the pulsed laser damage sensitivity of optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 163, 203–214 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin film optical coatings—part I: experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041– 2052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Balasubramanian, X. F. Han, K. H. Guenther, “Comparative study of titanium dioxide thin films produced by electron-beam evaporation and by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5594–5600 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Kimble, M. D. Himel, K. H. Guenther, “Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric thin films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5640–5644 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bonnott, E. Pollotior, G. Albrand, J. P. Borgogno, B. Lazarides, C. K. Carniglia, R. A. Schmell, T. H. Allen, T. Tuttle-Hart, K. H. Guenther, A. Saxer, “Comparison of the properties of titanium dioxide films prepared by various techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3303–3317 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, “Optical thin films deposited by energetic partiele processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1782, 344–355 (1993) and references therein.

K. H. Guenther, “Improved oxide coatings by reactive ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 247–250.

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Guentherodt, H. J.

E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).

Haefke, H.

E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).

Han, X. F.

Hantsche, H.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Heming, M.

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hess, N. J.

G. J. Exarhos, N. J. Hess, “Spatially resolved densification of solution-deposited oxide films by laser irradiation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (Elsevier, Amsterdam, to be published).

Himel, M. D.

Hu, X. Q.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Hueppauff, M.

M. Hueppauff, K. Bange, B. Lengeler, “Density, thickness and interface roughness of SiO2, TiO2, and Ta2O5 films on BK-7 glasses analyzed by X-ray reflection,” Thin Solid Films 230, 191–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. S.

M. C. Wundy, R. S. Hughes, C. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W. B.

Jacobs, S. D.

Jeschkowski, U.

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, C. Yamanaka, “Highly damage resistant, broad band, hard antireflection coating for high power lasers in the UV to near-IR wavelength regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 911–913 (1985).

Kimble, T. C.

Kohn, S.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kolbe, J.

A. Starke, H. Schink, J. Kolbe, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds and optical constants of ion planted and ion beam sputtered Al2O3 and HfO2 coatings for the ultraviolet,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 299–304 (1990).

Kuo, P. K.

Z. L. Wu, L. H. Wei, P. K. Kuo, “Thermal transport studies of nanometric layer stacks by mirage detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 361–375 (1993).

Laube, M.

C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Lazarides, B.

Lengeler, B.

M. Hueppauff, K. Bange, B. Lengeler, “Density, thickness and interface roughness of SiO2, TiO2, and Ta2O5 films on BK-7 glasses analyzed by X-ray reflection,” Thin Solid Films 230, 191–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, K. L.

E. M. Waddell, B. C. Monachan, K. L. Lewis, T. Wyatt-Davies, A. M. Pitt, “Cluster beam deposition for optical thin films,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 309–319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Loo, B.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, G. E.

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Matthias, E.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Mayer, E.

E. Mayer, H. Haefke, H. J. Guentherodt, O. Anderson, K. Bange, “Surface topography of polished and oxide-coated BK-7 glasses investigated by atomic force microscopy,” Glastech. Ber. 66, 30–37 (1993).

Mclver, J. K.

A. H. Guenther, J. K. Mclver, “The role of thermal conductivity in the pulsed laser damage sensitivity of optical thin films,” Thin Solid Films 163, 203–214 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McMinn, T.

T. McMinn, S. Seitel, M. Babb, “Laser damage of YAG surfaces,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 189–210 (1989).

Messingere, A.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Metten, S.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Monachan, B. C.

E. M. Waddell, B. C. Monachan, K. L. Lewis, T. Wyatt-Davies, A. M. Pitt, “Cluster beam deposition for optical thin films,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 309–319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, P. E.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin film optical coatings—part I: experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041– 2052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Olmstead, M. A.

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ottermann, C.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Ottermann, C. R.

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Otto, J.

C. R. Ottermann, J. Otto, U. Jeschkowski, O. Anderson, M. Heming, K. Bange, “Stress of TiO2 thin films produced by different deposition techniques,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 308, 69–75 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, A. M.

E. M. Waddell, B. C. Monachan, K. L. Lewis, T. Wyatt-Davies, A. M. Pitt, “Cluster beam deposition for optical thin films,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 309–319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Plante, L. M.

Pollotior, E.

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, M. Reinhold, “Reactive ion plating of optical films,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 100–105 (1989).

Rainer, F.

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Rauch, F.

C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Reichling, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reinhold, M.

H. K. Pulker, M. Reinhold, “Reactive ion plating of optical films,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 100–105 (1989).

Saxer, A.

Schaefer, D.

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schaefer, “In-situ investigation of laser conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Schink, H.

A. Starke, H. Schink, J. Kolbe, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds and optical constants of ion planted and ion beam sputtered Al2O3 and HfO2 coatings for the ultraviolet,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 299–304 (1990).

Schmell, R. A.

Seitel, S.

T. McMinn, S. Seitel, M. Babb, “Laser damage of YAG surfaces,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 189–210 (1989).

Shaw-Klein, L. J.

Starke, A.

A. Starke, H. Schink, J. Kolbe, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds and optical constants of ion planted and ion beam sputtered Al2O3 and HfO2 coatings for the ultraviolet,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 299–304 (1990).

Stolz, C. J.

C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, “Damage threshold study of ion beam sputtering coatings for a visible high repetition laser at LLNL,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 182–191 (1993).

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

Su, X.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, B. T.

Tan, C. Z.

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ ion laser irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 224–233 (1993).

Tang, X.

X. Tang, Z. X. Fan, “Effects of ion assisted deposition on optical properties of thin films,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 67–74 (1990).

Taylor, J. R.

C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, “Damage threshold study of ion beam sputtering coatings for a visible high repetition laser at LLNL,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 182–191 (1993).

Temmink, A.

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Tuttle-Hart, T.

Waddell, E. M.

E. M. Waddell, B. C. Monachan, K. L. Lewis, T. Wyatt-Davies, A. M. Pitt, “Cluster beam deposition for optical thin films,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 309–319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Waldorf, A. J.

Walker, T. W.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed laser-induced damage to thin film optical coatings—part I: experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041– 2052 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H. G.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. J.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wanger, W.

C. R. Ottermann, K. Bange, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, “Correlation of hydrogen content with properties of oxide thin films,” Surf. Interface Anal. 19, 435–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Bange, O. Anderson, C. Ottermann, O. Becker, A. Messingere, A. Temmink, R. Feile, S. Metten, W. Wanger, M. Laube, F. Rauch, H. Hantsche, “Stabiliserung von oxidischen duennen Schichten,” Bundesministerium für Forschungund Technologie-FKZ 13 N 5476/6 (VDI-Verlag, Duesseldorf, Germany, 1991).

Wei, L. H.

Z. L. Wu, L. H. Wei, P. K. Kuo, “Thermal transport studies of nanometric layer stacks by mirage detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 361–375 (1993).

Welsch, E.

E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, K. Friedrich, P. Eckhardt, “Separation of optical thin-film and substrate absorption by means of photothermal surface deformation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6575–6578 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Windham, D.

K. H. Guenther, B. Loo, D. Burns, J. Edgell, D. Windham, K. H. Mueller, “Microstructure analysis of thin films deposited by reactive evaporation and by reactive ion plating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1436–1445 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Windischman, H.

H. Windischman, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. L.

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, K. H. Guenther, “Absorption and thermal conductivity of oxide thin films measured by photothermal displacement and reflectance methods,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5660–5665 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ ion laser irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 224–233 (1993).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, L. H. Wei, P. K. Kuo, “Thermal transport studies of nanometric layer stacks by mirage detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 361–375 (1993).

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schaefer, “In-situ investigation of laser conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).

Wundy, M. C.

M. C. Wundy, R. S. Hughes, C. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt-Davies, T.

E. M. Waddell, B. C. Monachan, K. L. Lewis, T. Wyatt-Davies, A. M. Pitt, “Cluster beam deposition for optical thin films,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1987, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, D. Milam, B. E. Newnam, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.756, 309–319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, C. Yamanaka, “Highly damage resistant, broad band, hard antireflection coating for high power lasers in the UV to near-IR wavelength regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 911–913 (1985).

Yoshida, H.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, C. Yamanaka, “Highly damage resistant, broad band, hard antireflection coating for high power lasers in the UV to near-IR wavelength regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 911–913 (1985).

Yoshida, K.

K. Yoshida, H. Yoshida, Y. Kato, C. Yamanaka, “Highly damage resistant, broad band, hard antireflection coating for high power lasers in the UV to near-IR wavelength regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 911–913 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. A. Olmstead, N. M. Amer, S. Kohn, D. Fournier, A. C. Boccara, “Photothermal displacement spectroscopy: an optical probe for solids and surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 32, 141–154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. C. Wundy, R. S. Hughes, C. Carniglia, “Photothermal deflection microscopy of dielectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 985–987 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Glastech. Ber. (2)

H. K. Pulker, M. Reinhold, “Reactive ion plating of optical films,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 100–105 (1989).

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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

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[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

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[CrossRef]

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Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

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Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

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Thin Solid Films (2)

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[CrossRef]

T. McMinn, S. Seitel, M. Babb, “Laser damage of YAG surfaces,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1988, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.775, 189–210 (1989).

C. J. Stolz, J. R. Taylor, “Damage threshold study of ion beam sputtering coatings for a visible high repetition laser at LLNL,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 182–191 (1993).

X. Tang, Z. X. Fan, “Effects of ion assisted deposition on optical properties of thin films,” in Optical Thin Films III: New Developments, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1323, 67–74 (1990).

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Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, E. Welsch, D. Schaefer, Z. X. Fan, E. Matthias, “Defect characterization for thin films through thermal wave detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 271–281 (1992).

Z. L. Wu, Z. X. Fan, D. Schaefer, “In-situ investigation of laser conditioning of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 362–374 (1992).

Z. L. Wu, L. H. Wei, P. K. Kuo, “Thermal transport studies of nanometric layer stacks by mirage detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 361–375 (1993).

Z. L. Wu, M. Reichling, Z. X. Fan, X. Su, Z. J. Wang, “Applications of pulsed photothermal deflection technique in the study of laser-induced damage in optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 214–217 (1991).
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Z. L. Wu, C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, “Relaxation of dielectric thin films under Ar+ ion laser irradiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1848, 224–233 (1993).

K. H. Guenther, “Improved oxide coatings by reactive ion plating,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 247–250.

R. Chow, C. J. Stolz, F. Rainer, G. E. Loomis, K. H. Guenther, K. Balasubramamian, X. Q. Hu, “Laser induced damage threshold comparison of reactive low voltage ion plated and e-beam coatings,” in Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1991, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1624, 199–210 (1992).

A. Starke, H. Schink, J. Kolbe, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds and optical constants of ion planted and ion beam sputtered Al2O3 and HfO2 coatings for the ultraviolet,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 299–304 (1990).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thickness-dependent absorption for (a) REBE and (b) RLVIP TiO2 thin films measured by the PTD technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photothermal images for the (a) REBE and (b) RLVIP TiO2 thin films (optical thickness, nt = λ0/4 at 514 nm) obtained by the PTD technique at a modulation frequency of 10 kHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thickness-dependent defect densities for the REBE (filled circles) and RLVIP (open circles) TiO2 thin films measured by the PTD technique.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thickness-dependent thermal conductivity for the REBE (filled circles) and RLVIP (opon circles) TiO2 thin films measured by the mirage method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Thickness-dependent laser damage threshold (0.532-μm, 10-ns Nd:YAG) for the REBE (filled circles) and the RLVIP (open circles) TiO2 thin films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation between the damage threshold and (a) optical absorption, (b) thermal conductivity, (c) defect density.

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