Abstract

We describe a double-pulse electronic-speckle-interferometry system. Two separate speckle patterns of an object being tested are recorded within a few microseconds with a CCD camera. Their two images are stored in a frame grabber. The fringes obtained from subtraction are quantitatively analyzed by the spatial-carrier phase-shift method. Using three directions of illumination and one direction of observation, one can record at the same time all the information necessary for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional deformation vector. Applications of this system for measuring the rotating objects are discussed for the case for which a derotator needs to be used. Experimental results are presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Sixt, J. Engelsberger, “Holographic applications of computer-based fringe interpretation,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 97–104 (1985).
  2. T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed laser in E.S.P.I.,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Tyrer, “Application of pulsed holography and double pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry to large vibrating engineering structures,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 181–185 (1985).
  4. R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Kujawinska, J. Wojciak, “Spatial phase shifting techniques of fringe pattern analysis in photomechanics,” in Moire Techniques, Holographic Interferometry, Optical NDT, and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, F. Chiang, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1554B, 503–513 (1991).
  7. M. Küchel, “The new Zeiss interferometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical InspectionC. Grover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1332, 655–663 (1990).
  8. B. Pfister, M. Beck, H. J. Tiziani, “Speckleinterferometrie mit alternativen Phasenshiebe-methode an Beispielen aus der Defektanalyse,” in Laser in der Technik: Vortrage des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 63–67.
  9. B. Pfister, “Speckleinterferometrie zur Defektanalyse mit neuen Phasenschiebenmethoden,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1993).
  10. S. Leidenbach, “Die direkte Phasenmessung-ein neues Verfahren zur Berechnung von Phasenbildern aus nur einem Intensitätsbild,” in Laser in der Technik: Vorträge des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 68–72.
  11. H. Steinbichler, “New options of holographic metrology,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 435–447 (1991).
  12. D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), Chap. 2, p. 75.
  14. A. Ettemeyer, “Statische Verformungen,” in Praxis der Holografie: Grundlagen Standard- und Spezialverfahren, H. Marwitz, ed. (Expert Verlag, Ehningen bei Böblingen, 1990), pp. 224–244.
  15. R. Thalmann, “Electronic fringe interpolation in holographic interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1986).
  16. M.-A. Beeck, “Pulsed holographic vibration analysis on highspeed rotating objects: fringe formation, recording techniques, and practical applications,” Opt. Eng. 31, 553–561 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Joenathan, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

1993

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Beeck, “Pulsed holographic vibration analysis on highspeed rotating objects: fringe formation, recording techniques, and practical applications,” Opt. Eng. 31, 553–561 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

1991

D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1978

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed laser in E.S.P.I.,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Banyard, J. E.

D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

B. Pfister, M. Beck, H. J. Tiziani, “Speckleinterferometrie mit alternativen Phasenshiebe-methode an Beispielen aus der Defektanalyse,” in Laser in der Technik: Vortrage des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 63–67.

Beeck, M.-A.

M.-A. Beeck, “Pulsed holographic vibration analysis on highspeed rotating objects: fringe formation, recording techniques, and practical applications,” Opt. Eng. 31, 553–561 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Butters, J. N.

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed laser in E.S.P.I.,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cookson, T. J.

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed laser in E.S.P.I.,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Diao, H. Y.

X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

Engelsberger, J.

W. Sixt, J. Engelsberger, “Holographic applications of computer-based fringe interpretation,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 97–104 (1985).

Ettemeyer, A.

A. Ettemeyer, “Statische Verformungen,” in Praxis der Holografie: Grundlagen Standard- und Spezialverfahren, H. Marwitz, ed. (Expert Verlag, Ehningen bei Böblingen, 1990), pp. 224–244.

Joenathan, C.

Küchel, M.

M. Küchel, “The new Zeiss interferometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical InspectionC. Grover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1332, 655–663 (1990).

Kujawinska, M.

M. Kujawinska, J. Wojciak, “Spatial phase shifting techniques of fringe pattern analysis in photomechanics,” in Moire Techniques, Holographic Interferometry, Optical NDT, and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, F. Chiang, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1554B, 503–513 (1991).

Leidenbach, S.

S. Leidenbach, “Die direkte Phasenmessung-ein neues Verfahren zur Berechnung von Phasenbildern aus nur einem Intensitätsbild,” in Laser in der Technik: Vorträge des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 68–72.

Nassar, N. S.

D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

Pfister, B.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pfister, M. Beck, H. J. Tiziani, “Speckleinterferometrie mit alternativen Phasenshiebe-methode an Beispielen aus der Defektanalyse,” in Laser in der Technik: Vortrage des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 63–67.

B. Pfister, “Speckleinterferometrie zur Defektanalyse mit neuen Phasenschiebenmethoden,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1993).

Pollard, H. C.

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed laser in E.S.P.I.,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sixt, W.

W. Sixt, J. Engelsberger, “Holographic applications of computer-based fringe interpretation,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 97–104 (1985).

Spooren, R.

R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steinbichler, H.

H. Steinbichler, “New options of holographic metrology,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 435–447 (1991).

Thalmann, R.

R. Thalmann, “Electronic fringe interpolation in holographic interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1986).

Tiziani, H. J.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

C. Joenathan, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pfister, M. Beck, H. J. Tiziani, “Speckleinterferometrie mit alternativen Phasenshiebe-methode an Beispielen aus der Defektanalyse,” in Laser in der Technik: Vortrage des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 63–67.

Tyrer, J. R.

J. R. Tyrer, “Application of pulsed holography and double pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry to large vibrating engineering structures,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 181–185 (1985).

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), Chap. 2, p. 75.

Virdiee, M. S.

D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. C.

D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wojciak, J.

M. Kujawinska, J. Wojciak, “Spatial phase shifting techniques of fringe pattern analysis in photomechanics,” in Moire Techniques, Holographic Interferometry, Optical NDT, and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, F. Chiang, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1554B, 503–513 (1991).

Zou, Y. I.

X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulse-electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. Spooren, “Double-pulse subtraction TV holography,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1000–1007 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Beeck, “Pulsed holographic vibration analysis on highspeed rotating objects: fringe formation, recording techniques, and practical applications,” Opt. Eng. 31, 553–561 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

D. C. Williams, N. S. Nassar, J. E. Banyard, M. S. Virdiee, “Digital phase-step interferometry: a simplified approach,” Opt. Laser Technol. 23, 147–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cookson, J. N. Butters, H. C. Pollard, “Pulsed laser in E.S.P.I.,” Opt. Laser Technol. 10, 119–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Optik

X. Peng, H. Y. Diao, Y. I. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by modified dual-beam ESPI based on tilting illumination beams,” Optik 2, 61–64 (1992).

Other

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), Chap. 2, p. 75.

A. Ettemeyer, “Statische Verformungen,” in Praxis der Holografie: Grundlagen Standard- und Spezialverfahren, H. Marwitz, ed. (Expert Verlag, Ehningen bei Böblingen, 1990), pp. 224–244.

R. Thalmann, “Electronic fringe interpolation in holographic interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1986).

J. R. Tyrer, “Application of pulsed holography and double pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry to large vibrating engineering structures,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 181–185 (1985).

W. Sixt, J. Engelsberger, “Holographic applications of computer-based fringe interpretation,” in Optics in Engineering Measurement, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.599, 97–104 (1985).

M. Kujawinska, J. Wojciak, “Spatial phase shifting techniques of fringe pattern analysis in photomechanics,” in Moire Techniques, Holographic Interferometry, Optical NDT, and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, F. Chiang, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1554B, 503–513 (1991).

M. Küchel, “The new Zeiss interferometer,” in Optical Testing and Metrology III: Recent Advances in Industrial Optical InspectionC. Grover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1332, 655–663 (1990).

B. Pfister, M. Beck, H. J. Tiziani, “Speckleinterferometrie mit alternativen Phasenshiebe-methode an Beispielen aus der Defektanalyse,” in Laser in der Technik: Vortrage des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 63–67.

B. Pfister, “Speckleinterferometrie zur Defektanalyse mit neuen Phasenschiebenmethoden,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1993).

S. Leidenbach, “Die direkte Phasenmessung-ein neues Verfahren zur Berechnung von Phasenbildern aus nur einem Intensitätsbild,” in Laser in der Technik: Vorträge des 10. Internationalen Kongresses Laser 91, W. Waiderlich, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 68–72.

H. Steinbichler, “New options of holographic metrology,” in Holographic Optics III: Principles and Applications, G. M. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1507, 435–447 (1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for double-pulse ruby laser ESPI. BS, beam splitter; L, lens; PH, pinhole; AP, aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Speckle interferogram of a vibrating plate recorded with a pulse separation of 100 μs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase maps at different times after the impact of the pendulum on the plate: (a) 150 μs, (b) 1 ms, (c) 2 ms, (d) 1 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical setup for 2-D speckle interferometry.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-dimensional measurement of a cognac glass, (a) Phase map recorded with camera 1 leading to the deformation along the sensitivity vector s1. (b) Phase map recorded with camera 2 resulting in the deformation along the sensitivity vector s2. (c) Deformation along a line at the height h of the glass, obtained by combination of the deformations along the sensitivity vectors s1 and s2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-dimensional measurement of a vibrating plate: deformation along a horizontal line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical setup for double-pulse speckle interferometry with a rotating object.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Double-pulse speckle interferometry with a plate rotating at 3000 rpm and a pulse separation of 200 μs: (a) phase map, (b) pseudo-3-D representation of the deformation.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 ( x , y ) = | S P 1 ( x , y ) S P 2 ( x Δ x , y ) | ,
I 2 ( x , y ) = | S P 1 ( x , y ) S P 2 ( x , y ) | ,
I 3 ( x , y ) = | S P 1 ( x , y ) S P 2 ( x + Δ x , y ) | .
I 1 ( x , y ) = I 01 ( x , y ) { 1 + b 1 ( x , y ) cos [ ϕ ( x , y ) α ] } ,
I 2 ( x , y ) = I 02 ( x , y ) { 1 + b 2 ( x , y ) cos [ ϕ ( x , y ) ] } ,
I 3 ( x , y ) = I 03 ( x , y ) { 1 + b 3 ( x , y ) cos [ ϕ ( x , y ) + α ] } ,
ϕ = arctan ( I 3 I 1 I 3 + I 1 2 I 2 tan α 2 ) ,
ϕ ( x , y ) = 2 π λ u · s ,
s = k ̂ i k ̂ o ,
( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3 ) = 2 π λ ( s 1 x s 1 y s 1 z s 2 x s 2 y s 2 z s 3 x s 3 y s 3 z ) ( u x u y u z ) .
ϕ = 2 π λ S · u ,
u = λ 2 π S 1 · ϕ ,
δ u i 2 = λ 2 δ ϕ 2 ( 2 π ) 2 k a ik 2 ,

Metrics