Abstract

The effects of oceanic whitecaps on ocean-color imagery are simulated and inserted into the proposed Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) atmospheric-correction algorithm to understand its tolerance to error in the estimated whitecap contribution. The results suggest that for wind speeds ≲ 10–12 m/s, present models that relate whitecap reflectance to wind speed are sufficiently accurate to meet the SeaWiFS accuracy goal for retrieval of the water-leaving radiance in the blue, when the aerosol scattering is weakly dependent on wavelength. In contrast, when the aerosol scattering has a strong spectral signature, the retrievals will meet the goal only when the whitecap reflectance is underestimated.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  2. V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Y. Deschamps, M. Herman, D. Tanre, “Modeling of the atmospheric effects and its application to the remote sensing of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3751–3758 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).
  10. D. C. Blanchard, “Whitecaps at sea,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 645 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. C. Monahan, “Oceanic whitecaps,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 139–144 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Toba, M. Chaen, “Quantitative expression of the breaking of wind waves on the sea surface,” Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jpn. 12, 1–111973).
  13. D. B. Ross, V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurement of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 444–452 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Wu, “Oceanic whitecaps and sea state,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 9, 1064–1068 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. C. Monahan, I. G. OMuircheartaigh, “Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094–2099 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. C. Monahan, “Fresh water whitecaps,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1026–1029 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 627–642 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. S. Bortkovskii, Air-Sea Exchange of Heat and Moisture During Storms (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987).
  19. C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, R. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 719–722 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. J. Stabeno, E. C. Monahan, “The influence of whitecaps on the albedo of the sea surface,” in Oceanic Whitecaps, E. C. Monahan, G. M. Niocaill, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986), pp. 261–266.
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10585–10606 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1950).
  26. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. K. M. Case, “Transfer problems and the reciprocity principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651–663 (1957).
    [CrossRef]

1994

1991

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10585–10606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

1982

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, R. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

E. C. Monahan, I. G. OMuircheartaigh, “Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094–2099 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1974

D. B. Ross, V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurement of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 444–452 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

Y. Toba, M. Chaen, “Quantitative expression of the breaking of wind waves on the sea surface,” Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jpn. 12, 1–111973).

1971

D. C. Blanchard, “Whitecaps at sea,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 645 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, “Oceanic whitecaps,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 139–144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. C. Monahan, “Fresh water whitecaps,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1026–1029 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1957

K. M. Case, “Transfer problems and the reciprocity principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651–663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ackleson, S. G.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, D. S.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, R. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, D. C.

D. C. Blanchard, “Whitecaps at sea,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 645 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bortkovskii, R. S.

R. S. Bortkovskii, Air-Sea Exchange of Heat and Moisture During Storms (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987).

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Cardone, V.

D. B. Ross, V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurement of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 444–452 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Case, K. M.

K. M. Case, “Transfer problems and the reciprocity principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651–663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Chaen, M.

Y. Toba, M. Chaen, “Quantitative expression of the breaking of wind waves on the sea surface,” Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jpn. 12, 1–111973).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1950).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Leffe, A.

Deschamps, P. Y.

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Gurganus, R. A.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, R. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Holligan, P. M.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, J.

J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10585–10606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Monahan, E. C.

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, I. G. OMuircheartaigh, “Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094–2099 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, “Oceanic whitecaps,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 139–144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, “Fresh water whitecaps,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1026–1029 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Stabeno, E. C. Monahan, “The influence of whitecaps on the albedo of the sea surface,” in Oceanic Whitecaps, E. C. Monahan, G. M. Niocaill, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986), pp. 261–266.
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Muircheartaigh, I. G.

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

OMuircheartaigh, I. G.

E. C. Monahan, I. G. OMuircheartaigh, “Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094–2099 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ross, D. B.

D. B. Ross, V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurement of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 444–452 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sayed, S. Y. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stabeno, P. J.

P. J. Stabeno, E. C. Monahan, “The influence of whitecaps on the albedo of the sea surface,” in Oceanic Whitecaps, E. C. Monahan, G. M. Niocaill, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986), pp. 261–266.
[CrossRef]

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanre, D.

Toba, Y.

Y. Toba, M. Chaen, “Quantitative expression of the breaking of wind waves on the sea surface,” Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jpn. 12, 1–111973).

Voss, K. J.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Whitlock, C. H.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, R. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, “Oceanic whitecaps and sea state,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 9, 1064–1068 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. H. Whitlock, D. S. Bartlett, R. A. Gurganus, “Sea foam reflectance and influence on optimum wavelength for remote sensing of ocean aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 719–722 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sensing

E. C. Monahan, I. G. O’Muircheartaigh, “Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 627–642 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

E. C. Monahan, “Fresh water whitecaps,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1026–1029 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Blanchard, “Whitecaps at sea,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 645 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

D. B. Ross, V. Cardone, “Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote measurement of surface wind speed,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 444–452 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Hsiung, “Mean surface energy fluxes over the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10585–10606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr.

J. Wu, “Oceanic whitecaps and sea state,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 9, 1064–1068 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, I. G. OMuircheartaigh, “Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094–2099 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, “Oceanic whitecaps,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 139–144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, S. G. Ackleson, K. J. Voss, “Biological and optical properties of mesoscale coccolithophore blooms in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 629–643 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jpn.

Y. Toba, M. Chaen, “Quantitative expression of the breaking of wind waves on the sea surface,” Rec. Oceanogr. Works Jpn. 12, 1–111973).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

K. M. Case, “Transfer problems and the reciprocity principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651–663 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66(1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS technical report series: Vol. 1, an overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).

R. S. Bortkovskii, Air-Sea Exchange of Heat and Moisture During Storms (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1987).

P. J. Stabeno, E. C. Monahan, “The influence of whitecaps on the albedo of the sea surface,” in Oceanic Whitecaps, E. C. Monahan, G. M. Niocaill, eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986), pp. 261–266.
[CrossRef]

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1950).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

wc] N = r wc f as a function of wind speed and atmospheric stability. For the Monahan and O’Muircheartaigh17 relationship (dashed curves), the lower the value of [ρwc] N , the greater the stability of the atmosphere. The solid curve is from Ref. 21, and the circles are from Ref. 11.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Error in the retrieved t(443)ρ w (443) for viewing at the center the scan with (a)–(c) a Maritime aerosol at RH = 80% and (d)–(f) a Tropospheric aerosol at RH = 80% as a function of the solar zenith angle with τ a (865) = 0.2 and different errors of Δρwc in the estimation of ρwc. Filled circles, Δρwc = 0; filled squares, Δρwc > 0; open squares, Δρwc < 0.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Percent Error in Eq. (6) at 443 and 865 nm

Equations (29)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L t ( m ) ( λ ) = L r ( λ ) + L a ( λ ) + L r a ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) L wc ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) L w ( λ ) ,
ρ t ( m ) ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ a ( λ ) + ρ r a ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) ρ w c ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) ρ w ( λ ) .
f 1 = 2.95 × 10 - 6 W 3.52 ,
f 2 = 1.95 × 10 - 5 W 2.55 exp ( - 0.0861 Δ T ) ,
L w ( λ ) = [ L w ( λ ) ] N cos θ 0 t ( θ 0 , λ ) .
[ ρ w ] N = π F 0 [ L w ] N ,
ρ w ( λ ) = [ ρ w ( λ ) ] N t ( θ 0 , λ ) .
L wc ( λ ) = [ ρ wc ( λ ) ] N F 0 cos θ 0 π t ( θ 0 , λ ) ,
ρ wc ( λ ) = [ ρ wc ( λ ) ] N t ( θ 0 , λ ) ,
t ( θ v , λ ) ρ wc ( λ ) = [ ρ wc ( λ ) ] N t ( θ 0 , λ ) t ( θ v , λ ) .
ρ t ( m ) ( λ ) = ρ t ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) ρ wc ( λ ) .
δ ( λ ) t ( θ v , λ ) ρ wc ( λ ) - [ ρ t ( m ) ( λ ) - ρ t ( λ ) ] [ ρ t ( m ) ( λ ) - ρ t ( λ ) ] × 100 % ,
t ( θ v , λ i ) ρ w ( λ i ) = ρ t ( λ i ) - ρ r ( λ i ) - ɛ ( λ i , λ l ) [ ρ t ( λ l ) - ρ r ( λ l ) ] ,
t ( θ v , λ i ) ρ w ( λ i ) = ρ t ( m ) ( λ i ) - t ( θ v , λ i ) ρ wc ( e ) ( λ i ) - ρ r ( λ i ) - ɛ ( e ) ( λ i , λ l ) × [ ρ t ( m ) ( λ l ) - t ( θ v , λ l ) ρ wc ( e ) ( λ l ) - ρ r ( λ l ) ] .
Δ ρ = - Δ ρ wc [ ɛ ( e ) ( λ i , λ l ) t ( θ v , λ l ) t ( θ 0 , λ l ) - t ( θ v , λ i ) t ( θ 0 , λ i ) ] - Δ ɛ ( λ i , λ l ) [ ρ t ( λ l ) - ρ r ( λ l ) ] ,
Δ ɛ ( λ s , λ l ) = [ 1 - ɛ ( λ s , λ l ) ] X 1 + X ,
Δ ρ ( 443 ) - Δ ρ wc { [ 0.98 ɛ ( e ) ( 443 , 865 ) - 0.76 ] + Δ ɛ ( 443 , 865 ) X } .
Δ ɛ ( λ i , λ l ) X = ( λ l - λ i λ l - λ s ) ɛ ( λ i , λ l ) ɛ ( λ s , λ l ) [ 1 - ɛ ( λ s , λ l ) ] .
ρ t ( m ) ( λ ) - t ρ wc ( e ) ( λ ) = ρ t ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) Δ ρ wc ( λ ) ρ t ( e ) ( λ ) ,
ρ t ( m ) ( λ ) = ρ t ( λ ) + t ( λ ) ρ wc ( λ ) - t ( θ v , λ ) f ρ w ( λ ) ,
- t ( θ v , λ i ) t ( θ 0 , λ i ) f [ ρ w ( λ i ) ] N ,
t ( θ v ) = L ( θ v ) L 0 .
t ( θ v ) = exp [ - ( τ r 2 + τ Oz ) ( 1 μ v ) ] t a ( θ v ) ,
t a ( θ v ) = exp { - [ 1 - ω a F a ( μ v ) ] τ a μ v } ;
F a ( μ v ) = 1 4 π 0 2 π 0 1 P a ( α ) d μ d ϕ ,
cos α = μ μ v + [ ( 1 - μ 2 ) ( 1 - μ v 2 ) ] 1 / 2 cos ϕ .
ρ t ( λ ) = ρ r ( λ ) + ρ as ( λ ) + t ( θ v , λ ) ρ w ( λ ) ,
ρ as ( λ ) = ω a ( λ ) τ a ( λ ) p a ( θ v , θ 0 , λ ) / 4 cos θ v cos θ 0 , p a ( θ v , θ 0 , λ ) = P a ( θ - , λ ) + [ r ( θ v ) + r ( θ 0 ) ] P a ( θ + , λ ) , cos θ ± = ± cos θ 0 cos θ v - sin θ 0 sin θ v cos ( ϕ v - ϕ 0 ) ,
ɛ ( λ s , λ l ) ρ as ( λ s ) ρ as ( λ l ) = ω a ( λ s ) τ a ( λ s ) p a ( θ v , θ 0 , λ s ) ω a ( λ l ) τ a ( λ l ) p a ( θ v , θ 0 , λ l ) .

Metrics