Abstract

A true three-dimensional monitor is being developed for the direct display of three- (or higher-) dimensional information. The device is constructed of a three-dimensional array of pixels, actually voxels or volume elements, which in their quiescent state are transparent. When these elements are excited optically through a fiber-optic pigtail, they fluoresce. The sum of many fluorescing elements thus compose a three-dimensional image.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision—part the first. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 128, 371–394(1838).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. F. McAllister, ed., Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J.1993).
  3. F. Jentzsch, “The binocular microscope,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 1914, 1–16 (1914).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. E. Ives, “A camera for making parallax panoramagrams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 435–439 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Okoshi, “Three dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. B. Tilton, The 3D Oscilloscope, A Practical Manual and Guide (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1987).
  7. D. Gabor, “Holography 1948–1971,” Proc. IEEE 60, 655–668 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Wavefront reconstruction with continuous tone objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377–1381 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Bryngdahl, F. Wyrowski, “Digital holography—computer generated holograms,” in Progress in Optics XXVIII, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990), pp. 2–86.
  10. R. L. Pepper, D. C. Smith, R. E. Cole, “Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions,” Opt. Eng. 20, 579–585 (1981).
  11. W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. C. Traub, “Stereoscopic display using rapid varifocal mirror oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1085–1087 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. C. Traub, “Two teaching demonstrations using flexible mirrors,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 534–535 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. G. Rawson, “3D computer generated movies using a varifocal mirror,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1505–1511 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. G. Rawson, “Vibrating varifocal mirrors for 3D imaging,” IEEE Spectrum 6, 37–43 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. C. King, D. H. Berry, “Varifocal mirror technique for video transmission of three dimensional images,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2035–2039 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. D. Sher, “The oscillating mirror technique for realizing true 3D,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D. F. McAllister, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1993), pp. 196–213.
  20. R. D. Ketchpel, “Direct view three dimensional display tube,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-10, 324–328 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. G. Blundell, W. King, “Outline of a low cost prototype system to display three dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 792–793 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, D. K. Horrell, “Cathode ray sphere: a prototype system to display volumetric three dimensional images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 180–186 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. D. Williams, F. Garcia, “Volume visualization displays,” Inf. Disp. 4, 8–10 (1989).
  24. R. Batchko, “Volumetric displays,” Inf. Disp. 8, 8 (1992).
  25. T. E. Clifton, F. L. Weber, “Direct volume display devices,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27, 57–65 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. D. Williams, “Volumetric three dimensional display technology,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D. F. McAllister, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1993), pp. 230–246.
  27. J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. McGhee, “A true three dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 724–731 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. J. Schwarz, B. G. Blundell, “Considerations regarding voxel brightness in volumetric displays utilizing two step excitation processes,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2818–2823 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 40–41, 60, 600–660.

1994 (1)

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, D. K. Horrell, “Cathode ray sphere: a prototype system to display volumetric three dimensional images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 180–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. E. Clifton, F. L. Weber, “Direct volume display devices,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27, 57–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Schwarz, B. G. Blundell, “Considerations regarding voxel brightness in volumetric displays utilizing two step excitation processes,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2818–2823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Batchko, “Volumetric displays,” Inf. Disp. 8, 8 (1992).

1991 (1)

B. G. Blundell, W. King, “Outline of a low cost prototype system to display three dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 792–793 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. D. Williams, F. Garcia, “Volume visualization displays,” Inf. Disp. 4, 8–10 (1989).

1988 (1)

R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. L. Pepper, D. C. Smith, R. E. Cole, “Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions,” Opt. Eng. 20, 579–585 (1981).

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Three dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. Gabor, “Holography 1948–1971,” Proc. IEEE 60, 655–668 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. McGhee, “A true three dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 724–731 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

E. G. Rawson, “Vibrating varifocal mirrors for 3D imaging,” IEEE Spectrum 6, 37–43 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

A. C. Traub, “Stereoscopic display using rapid varifocal mirror oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1085–1087 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Traub, “Two teaching demonstrations using flexible mirrors,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 534–535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

E. N. Leith, J. Upatnieks, “Wavefront reconstruction with continuous tone objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377–1381 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Ketchpel, “Direct view three dimensional display tube,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-10, 324–328 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

H. E. Ives, “A camera for making parallax panoramagrams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 435–439 (1928).
[CrossRef]

1914 (1)

F. Jentzsch, “The binocular microscope,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 1914, 1–16 (1914).
[CrossRef]

1838 (1)

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision—part the first. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 128, 371–394(1838).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R.

R. Batchko, “Volumetric displays,” Inf. Disp. 8, 8 (1992).

Berry, D. H.

Blundell, B. G.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, D. K. Horrell, “Cathode ray sphere: a prototype system to display volumetric three dimensional images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 180–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Schwarz, B. G. Blundell, “Considerations regarding voxel brightness in volumetric displays utilizing two step excitation processes,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2818–2823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Blundell, W. King, “Outline of a low cost prototype system to display three dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 792–793 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 40–41, 60, 600–660.

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, F. Wyrowski, “Digital holography—computer generated holograms,” in Progress in Optics XXVIII, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990), pp. 2–86.

Camp, J. J.

L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clifton, T. E.

T. E. Clifton, F. L. Weber, “Direct volume display devices,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27, 57–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cole, R. E.

R. L. Pepper, D. C. Smith, R. E. Cole, “Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions,” Opt. Eng. 20, 579–585 (1981).

Ellis, S. R.

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “Holography 1948–1971,” Proc. IEEE 60, 655–668 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, F.

R. D. Williams, F. Garcia, “Volume visualization displays,” Inf. Disp. 4, 8–10 (1989).

Handa, N.

R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, B.

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harris, L. D.

L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Horrell, D. K.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, D. K. Horrell, “Cathode ray sphere: a prototype system to display volumetric three dimensional images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 180–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, “A camera for making parallax panoramagrams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 435–439 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Jentzsch, F.

F. Jentzsch, “The binocular microscope,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 1914, 1–16 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Ketchpel, R. D.

R. D. Ketchpel, “Direct view three dimensional display tube,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-10, 324–328 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. S.

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

King, M. C.

King, W.

B. G. Blundell, W. King, “Outline of a low cost prototype system to display three dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 792–793 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Lewis, J. D.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. McGhee, “A true three dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 724–731 (1971).
[CrossRef]

McGhee, R. B.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. McGhee, “A true three dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 724–731 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Three dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, R. L.

R. L. Pepper, D. C. Smith, R. E. Cole, “Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions,” Opt. Eng. 20, 579–585 (1981).

Rawson, E. G.

E. G. Rawson, “Vibrating varifocal mirrors for 3D imaging,” IEEE Spectrum 6, 37–43 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Rawson, “3D computer generated movies using a varifocal mirror,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1505–1511 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritman, E. L.

L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Robb, R. A.

L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, A. J.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, D. K. Horrell, “Cathode ray sphere: a prototype system to display volumetric three dimensional images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 180–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Schwarz, B. G. Blundell, “Considerations regarding voxel brightness in volumetric displays utilizing two step excitation processes,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2818–2823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sher, L. D.

L. D. Sher, “The oscillating mirror technique for realizing true 3D,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D. F. McAllister, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1993), pp. 196–213.

Smith, D. C.

R. L. Pepper, D. C. Smith, R. E. Cole, “Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions,” Opt. Eng. 20, 579–585 (1981).

Stark, L. W.

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tilton, H. B.

H. B. Tilton, The 3D Oscilloscope, A Practical Manual and Guide (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1987).

Traub, A. C.

A. C. Traub, “Two teaching demonstrations using flexible mirrors,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 534–535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Traub, “Stereoscopic display using rapid varifocal mirror oscillators,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1085–1087 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, M. E.

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Upatnieks, J.

Verber, C. M.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. McGhee, “A true three dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 724–731 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F. L.

T. E. Clifton, F. L. Weber, “Direct volume display devices,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27, 57–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wheatstone, C.

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision—part the first. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 128, 371–394(1838).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. D.

R. D. Williams, F. Garcia, “Volume visualization displays,” Inf. Disp. 4, 8–10 (1989).

R. D. Williams, “Volumetric three dimensional display technology,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D. F. McAllister, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1993), pp. 230–246.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 40–41, 60, 600–660.

Wyrowski, F.

O. Bryngdahl, F. Wyrowski, “Digital holography—computer generated holograms,” in Progress in Optics XXVIII, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990), pp. 2–86.

Yamamoto, K.

R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, R.

R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikura, H.

R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

A. C. Traub, “Two teaching demonstrations using flexible mirrors,” Am. J. Phys. 35, 534–535 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

T. E. Clifton, F. L. Weber, “Direct volume display devices,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 27, 57–65 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

E. G. Rawson, “Vibrating varifocal mirrors for 3D imaging,” IEEE Spectrum 6, 37–43 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, R. B. McGhee, “A true three dimensional display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 724–731 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Ketchpel, “Direct view three dimensional display tube,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-10, 324–328 (1963).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

B. G. Blundell, W. King, “Outline of a low cost prototype system to display three dimensional images,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40, 792–793 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (2)

L. D. Harris, J. J. Camp, E. L. Ritman, R. A. Robb, “Three dimensional display and analysis of tomographic volume images utilizing a varifocal mirror,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. MI-5, 67–72 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Yamanaka, K. Yamamoto, N. Handa, H. Yoshikura, “A 3-D display with a linearly moving mirror to reflect a series of 2-D cross sections and its application to noninvasive angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 7, 193–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

W. S. Kim, S. R. Ellis, M. E. Tyler, B. Hannaford, L. W. Stark, “Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three axis manual tracking tasks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-17, 61–72 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Inf. Disp. (2)

R. D. Williams, F. Garcia, “Volume visualization displays,” Inf. Disp. 4, 8–10 (1989).

R. Batchko, “Volumetric displays,” Inf. Disp. 8, 8 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. E. Ives, “A camera for making parallax panoramagrams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 435–439 (1928).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Microsc. Soc. (1)

F. Jentzsch, “The binocular microscope,” J. R. Microsc. Soc. 1914, 1–16 (1914).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

R. L. Pepper, D. C. Smith, R. E. Cole, “Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions,” Opt. Eng. 20, 579–585 (1981).

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, D. K. Horrell, “Cathode ray sphere: a prototype system to display volumetric three dimensional images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 180–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Schwarz, B. G. Blundell, “Considerations regarding voxel brightness in volumetric displays utilizing two step excitation processes,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2818–2823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

C. Wheatstone, “Contributions to the physiology of vision—part the first. On some remarkable and hitherto unobserved phenomena of binocular vision,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 128, 371–394(1838).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

T. Okoshi, “Three dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68, 548–564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Gabor, “Holography 1948–1971,” Proc. IEEE 60, 655–668 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

O. Bryngdahl, F. Wyrowski, “Digital holography—computer generated holograms,” in Progress in Optics XXVIII, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990), pp. 2–86.

H. B. Tilton, The 3D Oscilloscope, A Practical Manual and Guide (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1987).

D. F. McAllister, ed., Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J.1993).

L. D. Sher, “The oscillating mirror technique for realizing true 3D,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D. F. McAllister, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1993), pp. 196–213.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 40–41, 60, 600–660.

R. D. Williams, “Volumetric three dimensional display technology,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D. F. McAllister, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1993), pp. 230–246.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the display system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

More detail of the volumetric display, showing the pigtailed voxels and the structurally supporting fused-silica microsheets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission of the Norland optical adhesive with and without the organic dye, Coumarin 500. The curve including the Coumarin dye is marked with a C. The spike around 400 nm is duo to the change in excitation light source of the spectrophotometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of an 11 × 11 × 5 voxel display.

Metrics