Abstract

We show that hydrogen-terminated (111) Si wafers prepared with NH4F-based treatments can serve as a calibration standard for ellipsometers and reflectometers.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, D. D. Bacon, “Optical properties of Au: sample effects,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290–3299 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Standard Reference Material 2530 Series, available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899.
  4. J. C. Panner, E. W. Conrad, J. L. Rogers, “A new method to obtain reproducible measurements on single-wavelength, single-angle-of-incidence, null-seeking, polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer ellipsometers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 381–387 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Virginia Semiconductor, 1501 Powhatan St., Fredrickburg, Va. 22401.
  11. W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, “Cleaning solutions based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–233 (1970).
  12. The NH4F solution was obtained from Transene Co., Route 1, Rowley, Mass. 01969. The HF, HCl, NH4OH, and H2O2 solutions were obtained from Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15219–4785.
  13. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975); “Methods for drift stabilization and photomultiplier linearization for photometric ellipsometers and polarimeters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 291–297 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  14. E. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985), Part II, subpart 2.
  15. D. E. Aspnes, “Studies of surface, thin film, and interface properties by automatic spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 289–295 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Gräf, S. Bauer-Mayer, A. Schnegg, “Reaction of on Si (100) and Si (111) surfaces,” J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A 11, 940–944 (1993).
  17. G. S. Hsiao, J. A. Virtanen, R. M. Penner, “Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations of the Si (111) topography produced by etching in 40% NH4F: observation of an optimum etch duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1119–1121 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. E. Aspnes, “Surface transition regions and visible-near uv optical properties of some semiconductors,” Physica (The Hague) B 117 & 118, 359–361 (1983).
  19. U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (4)

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Gräf, S. Bauer-Mayer, A. Schnegg, “Reaction of on Si (100) and Si (111) surfaces,” J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A 11, 940–944 (1993).

G. S. Hsiao, J. A. Virtanen, R. M. Penner, “Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations of the Si (111) topography produced by etching in 40% NH4F: observation of an optimum etch duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1119–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Panner, E. W. Conrad, J. L. Rogers, “A new method to obtain reproducible measurements on single-wavelength, single-angle-of-incidence, null-seeking, polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer ellipsometers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 381–387 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Surface transition regions and visible-near uv optical properties of some semiconductors,” Physica (The Hague) B 117 & 118, 359–361 (1983).

1981 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Studies of surface, thin film, and interface properties by automatic spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 289–295 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, D. D. Bacon, “Optical properties of Au: sample effects,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290–3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975); “Methods for drift stabilization and photomultiplier linearization for photometric ellipsometers and polarimeters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 291–297 (1978).
[PubMed]

1970 (1)

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, “Cleaning solutions based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–233 (1970).

Armigliato, A.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, D. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Surface transition regions and visible-near uv optical properties of some semiconductors,” Physica (The Hague) B 117 & 118, 359–361 (1983).

D. E. Aspnes, “Studies of surface, thin film, and interface properties by automatic spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 289–295 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, D. D. Bacon, “Optical properties of Au: sample effects,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290–3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975); “Methods for drift stabilization and photomultiplier linearization for photometric ellipsometers and polarimeters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 291–297 (1978).
[PubMed]

Azzam, R. M. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacon, D. D.

D. E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, D. D. Bacon, “Optical properties of Au: sample effects,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290–3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bauer-Mayer, S.

D. Gräf, S. Bauer-Mayer, A. Schnegg, “Reaction of on Si (100) and Si (111) surfaces,” J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A 11, 940–944 (1993).

Becker, A. J.

G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. S.

G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Behm, R. J.

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgogno, J. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carline, R. T.

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, W. E.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerva, H.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chabal, Y. J.

G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, E. W.

J. C. Panner, E. W. Conrad, J. L. Rogers, “A new method to obtain reproducible measurements on single-wavelength, single-angle-of-incidence, null-seeking, polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer ellipsometers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 381–387 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Sande, J.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dinges, H.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltz, A.

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gräf, D.

D. Gräf, S. Bauer-Mayer, A. Schnegg, “Reaction of on Si (100) and Si (111) surfaces,” J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A 11, 940–944 (1993).

Hallais, J.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hart, T. T.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hessel, H. E.

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, G. S.

G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodgkin, V. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, G. S.

G. S. Hsiao, J. A. Virtanen, R. M. Penner, “Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations of the Si (111) topography produced by etching in 40% NH4F: observation of an optimum etch duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1119–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, “Cleaning solutions based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–233 (1970).

Kinsbron, E.

D. E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, D. D. Bacon, “Optical properties of Au: sample effects,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290–3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Klapp, W. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, W. Y.

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, H. E.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Memmert, U.

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nayar, V.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Neuwald, U.

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Panner, J. C.

J. C. Panner, E. W. Conrad, J. L. Rogers, “A new method to obtain reproducible measurements on single-wavelength, single-angle-of-incidence, null-seeking, polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer ellipsometers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 381–387 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penner, R. M.

G. S. Hsiao, J. A. Virtanen, R. M. Penner, “Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations of the Si (111) topography produced by etching in 40% NH4F: observation of an optimum etch duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1119–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, C.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Pidduck, A. J.

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Puotinen, D. A.

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, “Cleaning solutions based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–233 (1970).

Purvis, M. K.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, D. M.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raghavachari, K.

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. L.

J. C. Panner, E. W. Conrad, J. L. Rogers, “A new method to obtain reproducible measurements on single-wavelength, single-angle-of-incidence, null-seeking, polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer ellipsometers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 381–387 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salieri, P.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schaekers, M.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnegg, A.

D. Gräf, S. Bauer-Mayer, A. Schnegg, “Reaction of on Si (100) and Si (111) surfaces,” J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A 11, 940–944 (1993).

Stehlé, J.-L.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strome, D. H.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975); “Methods for drift stabilization and photomultiplier linearization for photometric ellipsometers and polarimeters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 291–297 (1978).
[PubMed]

Swenson, R.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temple, P. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thonn, T. F.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trucks, G. W.

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Landuyt, J.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanhellemont, J.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Virtanen, J. A.

G. S. Hsiao, J. A. Virtanen, R. M. Penner, “Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations of the Si (111) topography produced by etching in 40% NH4F: observation of an optimum etch duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1119–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Werner, H.

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. T. Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “High precision scanning ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 220–228 (1975); “Methods for drift stabilization and photomultiplier linearization for photometric ellipsometers and polarimeters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 291–297 (1978).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. S. Hsiao, J. A. Virtanen, R. M. Penner, “Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations of the Si (111) topography produced by etching in 40% NH4F: observation of an optimum etch duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1119–1121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Higashi, Y. J. Chabal, G. W. Trucks, K. Raghavachari, “Ideal hydrogen termination of the Si (111) surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 656–658 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Higashi, R. S. Becker, Y. J. Chabal, A. J. Becker, “Comparison of Si (111) surfaces prepared using aqueous solutions of NH4F versus HF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1656–1658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Vanhellemont, H. E. Maes, M. Schaekers, A. Armigliato, H. Cerva, A. Cullis, J. de Sande, H. Dinges, J. Hallais, V. Nayar, C. Pickering, J.-L. Stehlé, J. Van Landuyt, C. Walker, H. Werner, P. Salieri, “Round robin investigation of silicon oxide on silicon reference materials for ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 63, 45–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. Gräf, S. Bauer-Mayer, A. Schnegg, “Reaction of on Si (100) and Si (111) surfaces,” J. Vac. NH4F/HF solutions Sci. Technol. A 11, 940–944 (1993).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Studies of surface, thin film, and interface properties by automatic spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 289–295 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. E. Aspnes, E. Kinsbron, D. D. Bacon, “Optical properties of Au: sample effects,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 3290–3299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Physica (The Hague) B (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Surface transition regions and visible-near uv optical properties of some semiconductors,” Physica (The Hague) B 117 & 118, 359–361 (1983).

RCA Rev. (1)

W. Kern, D. A. Puotinen, “Cleaning solutions based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–233 (1970).

Surf. Sci. Lett. (1)

U. Neuwald, H. E. Hessel, A. Feltz, U. Memmert, R. J. Behm, “Wet chemical etching of Si (100) surfaces in concentrated NH4F solution: formation of (2 × 1)H reconstructed Si (100) terraces versus (111) faceting,” Surf. Sci. Lett. 296, L8–14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. C. Panner, E. W. Conrad, J. L. Rogers, “A new method to obtain reproducible measurements on single-wavelength, single-angle-of-incidence, null-seeking, polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer ellipsometers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 381–387 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

The NH4F solution was obtained from Transene Co., Route 1, Rowley, Mass. 01969. The HF, HCl, NH4OH, and H2O2 solutions were obtained from Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15219–4785.

E. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985), Part II, subpart 2.

Standard Reference Material 2530 Series, available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899.

V. Nayar, W. Y. Leong, C. Pickering, A. J. Pidduck, R. T. Carline, D. J. Robbins, “Spectroscopy ellipsometry of epitaxial Si (100) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1304–1306 (1992); C. Pickering, Defence Research Agency, Malvern, UK. (personal communication, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Virginia Semiconductor, 1501 Powhatan St., Fredrickburg, Va. 22401.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the dielectric function of (111) Si surfaces treated with HF, BHF, and NH4F as described in the text. The actual data are shown in the inset in (b) to provide an expanded view of the E2 peak of 〈∊2〉.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the E2 peak height of (111) Si surfaces on times of exposure to HF and NH4F solutions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the rate of decay of the E2 peak height on the initial value for NH4F-treated surfaces. NH4F exposure times are 300, 90, 60, and 300 s for curves (a), (b), (c), and (d), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Procedure for Preparing Optical-Standard (111) Si Surfacesa

Metrics