M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, J. M. Vaughan, “Optical amplification and spontaneous emission in an Ar+ discharge,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195–1203 (1992).

[CrossRef]

B. J. Rye, R. G. Frehlich, “Optical truncation and optical efficiency of an apertured coherent lidar focused on an incoherent backscatter target,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2891–2899 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Frehlich, J. J. Churnside, “Statistical properties of estimates of the moments of laser scintillation,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1645–1659 (1989).

[CrossRef]

R. M. Hardesty, R. J. Keeler, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, “Characteristics of coherent lidar returns from calibration targets and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3763–3769 (1981).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. G. Cummins, E. J. Staples, “Particle size measurements on turbid latex systems using heterodyne intensity autocorrelation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E 14, 1171–1177 (1981).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, E. Jakeman, “Non-Gaussian fluctuations in electromagnetic radiation scattered by a random phase screen. II. Application to dynamic scattering in a liquid,” J. Phys. A 8, 392–410 (1975).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “Measurements of the factorization properties of higher-order optical correlation functions,” J. Phys. A 1, 497–499 (1968).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “A measurement of optical linewidth by photon-counting statistics,” J. Phys. A 1, 406–408 (1968).

[CrossRef]

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 150–153 (1964).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Frehlich, J. J. Churnside, “Statistical properties of estimates of the moments of laser scintillation,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1645–1659 (1989).

[CrossRef]

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 150–153 (1964).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Cummins, E. J. Staples, “Particle size measurements on turbid latex systems using heterodyne intensity autocorrelation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E 14, 1171–1177 (1981).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, J. M. Vaughan, “Optical amplification and spontaneous emission in an Ar+ discharge,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195–1203 (1992).

[CrossRef]

G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, E. Jakeman, D. Letalick, “Spectral filtering of light possessing non-Gaussian statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

D. L. Jordan, R. C. Hollins, “Measurements of Gaussian speckle statistics using both direct and heterodyne detection of CO2 laser radiation,” Opt. Acta 30, 417–423 (1983).

[CrossRef]

E. V. Hoversten, “Optical communication theory,” in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-DuBois, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 1805–1862.

P. N. Pusey, E. Jakeman, “Non-Gaussian fluctuations in electromagnetic radiation scattered by a random phase screen. II. Application to dynamic scattering in a liquid,” J. Phys. A 8, 392–410 (1975).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “Measurements of the factorization properties of higher-order optical correlation functions,” J. Phys. A 1, 497–499 (1968).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “A measurement of optical linewidth by photon-counting statistics,” J. Phys. A 1, 406–408 (1968).

[CrossRef]

G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, E. Jakeman, D. Letalick, “Spectral filtering of light possessing non-Gaussian statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar Systems (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992).

D. L. Jordan, R. C. Hollins, “Measurements of Gaussian speckle statistics using both direct and heterodyne detection of CO2 laser radiation,” Opt. Acta 30, 417–423 (1983).

[CrossRef]

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

P. J. Nash, T. A. King, “A heterodyne photon-correlation spectrometer of advanced design,” J. Phys. E 18, 319–327 (1985).

[CrossRef]

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 150–153 (1964).

[CrossRef]

D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Measured signal amplitude distributions for a coherent FM-cw CO2 laser radar,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3927–3938 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, E. Jakeman, D. Letalick, “Spectral filtering of light possessing non-Gaussian statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, J. M. Vaughan, “Optical amplification and spontaneous emission in an Ar+ discharge,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195–1203 (1992).

[CrossRef]

S. Sasaki, M. Mandel, “Equipment for photon-correlation spectroscopy measurements in the heterodyne mode,” J. Phys. E 17, 738–740 (1984).

[CrossRef]

P. J. Nash, T. A. King, “A heterodyne photon-correlation spectrometer of advanced design,” J. Phys. E 18, 319–327 (1985).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “Measurements of the factorization properties of higher-order optical correlation functions,” J. Phys. A 1, 497–499 (1968).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “A measurement of optical linewidth by photon-counting statistics,” J. Phys. A 1, 406–408 (1968).

[CrossRef]

G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, E. Jakeman, D. Letalick, “Spectral filtering of light possessing non-Gaussian statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “A measurement of optical linewidth by photon-counting statistics,” J. Phys. A 1, 406–408 (1968).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “Measurements of the factorization properties of higher-order optical correlation functions,” J. Phys. A 1, 497–499 (1968).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

G. Parry, P. N. Pusey, “K distributions in atmospheric propagation of light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 796–798 (1979).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, E. Jakeman, “Non-Gaussian fluctuations in electromagnetic radiation scattered by a random phase screen. II. Application to dynamic scattering in a liquid,” J. Phys. A 8, 392–410 (1975).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light scattering and intensity fluctuation spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, M. Davies, ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 48–105.

[CrossRef]

S. Sasaki, M. Mandel, “Equipment for photon-correlation spectroscopy measurements in the heterodyne mode,” J. Phys. E 17, 738–740 (1984).

[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, J. M. Vaughan, “Optical amplification and spontaneous emission in an Ar+ discharge,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195–1203 (1992).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Cummins, E. J. Staples, “Particle size measurements on turbid latex systems using heterodyne intensity autocorrelation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E 14, 1171–1177 (1981).

[CrossRef]

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, J. M. Vaughan, “Optical amplification and spontaneous emission in an Ar+ discharge,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195–1203 (1992).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light scattering and intensity fluctuation spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, M. Davies, ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 48–105.

[CrossRef]

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 150–153 (1964).

[CrossRef]

P. H. Flamant, R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, “Evidence for speckle effects on pulsed CO2 lidar signal returns from remote targets,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1412–1417 (1984).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Letalick, I. Renhorn, O. Steinvall, “Measured signal amplitude distributions for a coherent FM-cw CO2 laser radar,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3927–3938 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, “Experimental comparison of heterodyne and direct detection for pulsed differential absorption CO2 lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 682–689 (1983).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. M. Hardesty, R. J. Keeler, M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, “Characteristics of coherent lidar returns from calibration targets and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3763–3769 (1981).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. H. Shapiro, “Correlation scales of laser speckle in heterodyne detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1883–1888 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. G. W. Brown, “Dynamic light scattering using monomode optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4846–4851 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Ricka, “Dynamic light scattering with single-mode and multimode receivers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2860–2875 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. E. Siegman, “The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1588–1594 (1966).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

B. J. Rye, R. G. Frehlich, “Optical truncation and optical efficiency of an apertured coherent lidar focused on an incoherent backscatter target,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2891–2899 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, J. M. Vaughan, “Optical amplification and spontaneous emission in an Ar+ discharge,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195–1203 (1992).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, D. Brown, R. D. Callan, P. H. Davies, R. Foord, W. R. M. Pomeroy, “Correlation analysis of fluctuations in coherent lidar signals at 10.6 μm,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 623–648 (1991).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Frehlich, J. J. Churnside, “Statistical properties of estimates of the moments of laser scintillation,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1645–1659 (1989).

[CrossRef]

G. Parry, P. N. Pusey, “K distributions in atmospheric propagation of light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 796–798 (1979).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Some fundamental properties of speckle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1150 (1976).

[CrossRef]

V. Bluemel, L. M. Narducci, R. A. Tuft, “Photon-count distributions and irradiance fluctuations of a log-normally distributed light field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1309–1314 (1972).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “Measurements of the factorization properties of higher-order optical correlation functions,” J. Phys. A 1, 497–499 (1968).

[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, C. J. Oliver, E. R. Pike, “A measurement of optical linewidth by photon-counting statistics,” J. Phys. A 1, 406–408 (1968).

[CrossRef]

P. N. Pusey, E. Jakeman, “Non-Gaussian fluctuations in electromagnetic radiation scattered by a random phase screen. II. Application to dynamic scattering in a liquid,” J. Phys. A 8, 392–410 (1975).

[CrossRef]

P. G. Cummins, E. J. Staples, “Particle size measurements on turbid latex systems using heterodyne intensity autocorrelation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. E 14, 1171–1177 (1981).

[CrossRef]

S. Sasaki, M. Mandel, “Equipment for photon-correlation spectroscopy measurements in the heterodyne mode,” J. Phys. E 17, 738–740 (1984).

[CrossRef]

P. J. Nash, T. A. King, “A heterodyne photon-correlation spectrometer of advanced design,” J. Phys. E 18, 319–327 (1985).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Jordan, R. C. Hollins, “Measurements of Gaussian speckle statistics using both direct and heterodyne detection of CO2 laser radiation,” Opt. Acta 30, 417–423 (1983).

[CrossRef]

H. Z. Cummins, N. Knable, Y. Yeh, “Observation of diffusion broadening of Rayleigh scattered light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 150–153 (1964).

[CrossRef]

G. N. Pearson, M. Harris, E. Jakeman, D. Letalick, “Spectral filtering of light possessing non-Gaussian statistics,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Strictly, this is true only for the simple classical picture presented here, in which the field cannot fall to zero. The square of this field represents the relative probability for detection of a photon, and, although this probability similarly does not fall to zero, it is clearly possible to obtain a count of zero over a selected short time scale with a sufficiently weak signal.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974); Photon Correlation and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).

P. N. Pusey, J. M. Vaughan, “Light scattering and intensity fluctuation spectroscopy,” in Dielectric and Related Molecular Processes, M. Davies, ed. (Chemical Society, London, 1976), Vol. 2, pp. 48–105.

[CrossRef]

A. V. Jelalian, Laser Radar Systems (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992).

E. V. Hoversten, “Optical communication theory,” in Laser Handbook, F. T. Arecchi, E. O. Schulz-DuBois, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), pp. 1805–1862.

R. M. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.