Abstract

Tropospheric aerosols have been observed for the period from November 1990 to April 1992 with a lidar, a sun photometer, and an optical particle counter. Variations of aerosol optical thickness derived from the lidar and the sun photometer data and measurements are presented. The simultaneous measurements of these instruments also allowed us to estimate the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S1), which ranged from 20 to 70. Comparison of optical thicknesses derived from both instruments clearly shows the effect of Mt. Pinatubo’s eruption and the temporal variation of optical thickness in the stratosphere over 12 km. The possible range of the complex refractive index for the columnar mean aerosols can be deduced from the probable range of S1 derived by the use of an S1 diagram as a function of complex refractive index (m). The imaginary part of m can be estimated provided that the real part of m is known.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, Environmental Research Papers (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 94.
  2. A. Deepak, H. E. Gerber, eds., “Report of the experts meeting on aerosols and their climatic effects,” Rep. WCP-55 (World Meterological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1983), p. 198.
  3. S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the long term variation of stratospheric aerosol content after the eruption of volcano El Chicon: lidar measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465–473 (1985).
  4. B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, “Comparison between the El Chichon and Pinatubo aerosol clouds seen at 23° S,” in Abstracts of AGU Chapman Conference on Climate, Volcanism and Global Change (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 27.
  5. H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, “Stratospheric aerosol change in the early stage of volcanic disturbance by the Pinatubo eruption observed over Tsukuba, Japan,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 575–578 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).
  8. F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3793 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  11. T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Aerosol optical properties inferred from simultaneous lidar, aerosol-counter, and sunphotometer measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 729–739 (1990).
  12. G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of atmospheric humidity on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosols as estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–582 (1984).
  14. G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, K. Arao, “Secular variation of atmospheric turbidity over Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 49, 859–865 (1971).
  15. M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).
  16. H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Ratio of aerosol backscatter to extinction coefficients as determined from angular scattering measruements for use in atmospheric lidar applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 293–302 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. H. Whitlock, J. T. Suttles, S. R. LeCroy, “Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” NASA Tech. Memo. 86379 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 1–7.
  20. E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a solid-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. T. Shaw, ed., Recent Developments in Aerosol Science (Wiley, New York, 1978).
  23. T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).
  24. M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

1993 (2)

S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, “Stratospheric aerosol change in the early stage of volcanic disturbance by the Pinatubo eruption observed over Tsukuba, Japan,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 575–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

1992 (3)

H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

1990 (2)

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Aerosol optical properties inferred from simultaneous lidar, aerosol-counter, and sunphotometer measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 729–739 (1990).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

1987 (2)

Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Ratio of aerosol backscatter to extinction coefficients as determined from angular scattering measruements for use in atmospheric lidar applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 293–302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the long term variation of stratospheric aerosol content after the eruption of volcano El Chicon: lidar measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465–473 (1985).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

1984 (2)

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of atmospheric humidity on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosols as estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–582 (1984).

1983 (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a solid-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, K. Arao, “Secular variation of atmospheric turbidity over Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 49, 859–865 (1971).

Abo, M.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Akiyoshi, H.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Arao, K.

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, K. Arao, “Secular variation of atmospheric turbidity over Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 49, 859–865 (1971).

Asai, K.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Clemesha, B. R.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, “Comparison between the El Chichon and Pinatubo aerosol clouds seen at 23° S,” in Abstracts of AGU Chapman Conference on Climate, Volcanism and Global Change (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 27.

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, Environmental Research Papers (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 94.

Fernald, F. G.

Fujimoto, T.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Fujiwara, M.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Gillette, D. A.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a solid-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hase, M.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Hayasaka, T.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

Hayashida, S.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, “Stratospheric aerosol change in the early stage of volcanic disturbance by the Pinatubo eruption observed over Tsukuba, Japan,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 575–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the long term variation of stratospheric aerosol content after the eruption of volcano El Chicon: lidar measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465–473 (1985).

Idesako, Y.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Itabe, T.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Iwasaka, Y.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the long term variation of stratospheric aerosol content after the eruption of volcano El Chicon: lidar measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465–473 (1985).

Jager, H.

H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kai, K.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Kano, T.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

LeCroy, S. R.

C. H. Whitlock, J. T. Suttles, S. R. LeCroy, “Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” NASA Tech. Memo. 86379 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 1–7.

McCormick, M. P.

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3793 (1979).
[PubMed]

Nagai, T.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Nagasawa, C.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Nakajima, T.

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of atmospheric humidity on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosols as estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–582 (1984).

Nakane, H.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, A.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Nomura, R.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Patterson, E. M.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a solid-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

Sai, Y.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Saito, Y.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Sasano, Y.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, “Stratospheric aerosol change in the early stage of volcanic disturbance by the Pinatubo eruption observed over Tsukuba, Japan,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 575–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Aerosol optical properties inferred from simultaneous lidar, aerosol-counter, and sunphotometer measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 729–739 (1990).

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Ratio of aerosol backscatter to extinction coefficients as determined from angular scattering measruements for use in atmospheric lidar applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 293–302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, “Quantitative analysis of RHI lidar data by an iterative adjustment of the boundary condition term in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 615–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, Environmental Research Papers (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 94.

Shibata, T.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Shiobara, M.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

Simonich, D. M.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, “Comparison between the El Chichon and Pinatubo aerosol clouds seen at 23° S,” in Abstracts of AGU Chapman Conference on Climate, Volcanism and Global Change (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 27.

Sunagawa, T.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Suttles, J. T.

C. H. Whitlock, J. T. Suttles, S. R. LeCroy, “Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” NASA Tech. Memo. 86379 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 1–7.

Swissler, T. J.

Takamura, T.

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Aerosol optical properties inferred from simultaneous lidar, aerosol-counter, and sunphotometer measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 729–739 (1990).

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Ratio of aerosol backscatter to extinction coefficients as determined from angular scattering measruements for use in atmospheric lidar applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 293–302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of atmospheric humidity on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosols as estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–582 (1984).

Tamaki, K.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Tanaka, M.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of atmospheric humidity on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosols as estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–582 (1984).

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, K. Arao, “Secular variation of atmospheric turbidity over Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 49, 859–865 (1971).

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Veiga, R. E.

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitby, K. T.

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Whitlock, C. H.

C. H. Whitlock, J. T. Suttles, S. R. LeCroy, “Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” NASA Tech. Memo. 86379 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 1–7.

Yamamoto, G.

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, K. Arao, “Secular variation of atmospheric turbidity over Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 49, 859–865 (1971).

Yasumatsu, S.

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, “Stratospheric aerosol change in the early stage of volcanic disturbance by the Pinatubo eruption observed over Tsukuba, Japan,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 575–578 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Jager, “The Pinatubo eruption cloud observed by lidar at Garmish–Partenkirchen,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 191–194 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, “Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a solid-derived component,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074–2082 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Jpn. (1)

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (7)

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, “Some uncertainties in optical properties of aerosols estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 969–974 (1985).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–345 (1990).

O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, M. Fujiwara, H. Akiyoshi, S. Yasumatsu, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, Y. Iwasaka, M. Hase, T. Shibata, T. Itabe, K. Asai, A. Nomura, Y. Saito, T. Kano, Y. Sai, K. Tamaki, R. Nomura, T. Sunagawa, C. Nagasawa, M. Abo, Y. Idesako, K. Kai, “Observation of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud by lidar network in Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 71, 285–296 (1993).

T. Takamura, M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of atmospheric humidity on the refractive index and the size distribution of aerosols as estimated from light scattering measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 62, 573–582 (1984).

G. Yamamoto, M. Tanaka, K. Arao, “Secular variation of atmospheric turbidity over Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 49, 859–865 (1971).

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Aerosol optical properties inferred from simultaneous lidar, aerosol-counter, and sunphotometer measurements,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 729–739 (1990).

S. Hayashida, Y. Iwasaka, “On the long term variation of stratospheric aerosol content after the eruption of volcano El Chicon: lidar measurements at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 465–473 (1985).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Ratio of aerosol backscatter to extinction coefficients as determined from angular scattering measruements for use in atmospheric lidar applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 293–302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. H. Whitlock, J. T. Suttles, S. R. LeCroy, “Phase function, backscatter, extinction, and absorption for standard radiation atmosphere and El Chichon aerosol models at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” NASA Tech. Memo. 86379 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 1–7.

B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, “Comparison between the El Chichon and Pinatubo aerosol clouds seen at 23° S,” in Abstracts of AGU Chapman Conference on Climate, Volcanism and Global Change (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 27.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, Environmental Research Papers (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979), p. 94.

A. Deepak, H. E. Gerber, eds., “Report of the experts meeting on aerosols and their climatic effects,” Rep. WCP-55 (World Meterological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1983), p. 198.

D. T. Shaw, ed., Recent Developments in Aerosol Science (Wiley, New York, 1978).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variations of the optical thickness measured with (a) the lidar and with the sun photometers, (b) NIES, Tsukuba, and (c) NDA, Yokosuka. The lidar data show the contribution of tropospheric aerosols (0–12 km).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relation between the optical thicknesses derived from the lidar and from the sun photometer measurements. The open and filled circles represent the data before and after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, respectively. The solid line is drawn with a = 1 and b = −0.02 and corresponds to S1 = 54 (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference in the optical thickness of aerosols over 12 km in altitude, estimated by subtracting the lidar optical thickness from the sun photometer thickness. S1 was assumed to be 30, 54 (symbols), and 70. A smaller S1 yields smaller optical thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). Determination of S1 with the lidar and sun photometer data, (b) temporal change of S1, (c) relation between the best value of S1 and the optical thickness as measured with the sun photometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional contribution of the small-mode aerosols to S1. The complex index of refraction is assumed to be m = 1.50 − 0.005i for the small mode and m = 1.55 − 0.005i for the large mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of typical volume size distribution of aerosols measured with an optical particle counter. The complex index of refraction is assumed to be m = 1.55 − 0.005i for all particles. The assumed distribution over 5 μm is a function described by dV/d In r = cr−0.5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of the volume V0 of the small-mode aerosols when a zeroth-order log-normal distribution is fitted to the measured distribution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relation between the particle volume V0 and the mode radius r0, assuming a zeroth-order log-normal distribution for the small mode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Aerosol extinction profile obtained with lidar measurements. The solid curve with bars is a sum of aerosol and air molecule extinction coefficients. The smooth solid curve is for an air molecule extinction profile. The bars show the standard deviations of the aerosol extinction coefficient.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Possible range of the complex index of refraction (mr, mi) inferred for the data set shown in Fig. 4(a). The best estimate of S1 is 61, with extremes of 50 and 80.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Possible range of the imaginary part of m corresponding to the best S1 estimated from the combination of the lidar and the sun photometer measurements. The data indicated by the asterisks may have a large error.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Instruments Used

Equations (3)

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m r : 1.35 0.05 1.70 , m i : 0.0 , - 0.005 , - 0.01 , - 0.02 , - 0.03 , - 0.05 , - 0.08 , - 0.1 ,
τ s u n = a * τ l i d + b ,
d V d r = V 0 exp [ - ( ln r - ln r 0 ) 2 / ( 2 ln 2 σ 0 ) ] 2 π ln σ 0 r 0 exp ( ln 2 σ 0 / 2 ) ,

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