Abstract

The Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument is a high-resolution (0.0003 cm−1) scanning tunable-diode-laser spectrometer designed, tested, and flown more than 30 times on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s high-altitude ER-2 aircraft in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition of 1991–1992. Using long-path infrared laser absorption spectroscopy to detect optical absorptions as small as 10−5, ALIAS provides fast, continuous in-situ measurements of key atmospheric gases, with gas detection sensitivities of tens of parts in 1012. With four lasers and detectors in a single liquid-nitrogen Dewar, simultaneous measurements of HCl, NO2, HNO3, CH4, and NO2 are made using laser sources at 3.4–8 μm, injected into a 1-m-long, 80-pass Herriott cell.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “In situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, 13CH4, N2O, and OC 18O using the BLISS tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 45–48 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]

1993 (3)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “In situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, 13CH4, N2O, and OC 18O using the BLISS tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 45–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, “Correlation-based technique for automated tunable diode laser scan stabilization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2922–2926 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Monastersky, “Voyage into unknown skies,” Sci. News 139, 136–137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (5)

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, “Narrow optical interference fringes for certain setup conditions in multipass absorption cells of the Herriott type,” Appl. Opt. 29, 898–900 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13,851–13,866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, S. P. Sander, R. Beer, R. D. May, R. G. Knollenberg, D. M. Hunten, J. Ballard, “Tunable diode laser infrared spectrometer for in situ measurements of the gas phase composition and particle size distribution of Titan’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 907–917 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (5)

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the BLISS tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, “Computer processing of tunable diode laser spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 834–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature (London) 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1,284–1,287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction,” Nature (London) 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, “Brewster plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (2)

J. Altman, R. Baumgart, C. Weitkamp, “Two-mirror multipass absorption cell,” Appl. Opt. 20, 995–999 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rader, V. A. Marple, “A study of the effects of anisokinetic sampling,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 283–299 (1981).

1964 (1)

1918 (1)

I. Langmuir, “The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica, and platinum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361–1375 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Albritton, D. L.

D. L. Albritton, R. T. Watson, “Scientific assessment of stratospheric ozone: 1989,” World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. 20 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1989).

Alpert, J. C.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Altman, J.

Anderson, J. G.

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avallone, L. M.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballard, J.

Baumgart, R.

Beer, R.

Berg, W. W.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. R.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Condon, E. P.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

DeMore, W. B.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Elkins, J.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahey, D. W.

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Farman, J. C.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction,” Nature (London) 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. R.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature (London) 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction,” Nature (London) 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Golden, D. M.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1,284–1,287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hampson, R. F.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Harris, G. W.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Hill, G. F.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, E. D.

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 163–272.

Howard, C. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Hunten, D. M.

Karecki, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

Kelly, K. K.

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knollenberg, R. G.

Kogelnik, H.

Kolb, C. E.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Kompsner, R.

Krueger, A. J.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kurylo, M. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Lait, L. R.

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langford, J. S.

J. S. Langford, “New aircraft platforms for Earth system sciences: an opportunity for the 90’s,” paper ICAS-90-5.8.1 presented at the Seventeenth Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Stockholm, 9–14 September 1990.

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir, “The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica, and platinum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361–1375 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Margitan, J. J.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Marple, V. A.

D. J. Rader, V. A. Marple, “A study of the effects of anisokinetic sampling,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 283–299 (1981).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May, “Correlation-based technique for automated tunable diode laser scan stabilization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2922–2926 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “In situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, 13CH4, N2O, and OC 18O using the BLISS tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 45–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, S. P. Sander, R. Beer, R. D. May, R. G. Knollenberg, D. M. Hunten, J. Ballard, “Tunable diode laser infrared spectrometer for in situ measurements of the gas phase composition and particle size distribution of Titan’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 907–917 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13,851–13,866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the BLISS tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, “Computer processing of tunable diode laser spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 834–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

McPeters, R. D.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 163–272.

Molina, M. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Monastersky, R.

R. Monastersky, “Voyage into unknown skies,” Sci. News 139, 136–137 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. M.

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. A.

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. G.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J.

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1,284–1,287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, D. R.

D. R. Pitts, L. E. Sissom, Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

Plumb, A.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Podolske, J. R.

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pyle, J.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13,851–13,866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rader, D. J.

D. J. Rader, V. A. Marple, “A study of the effects of anisokinetic sampling,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 283–299 (1981).

Ravishankara, A. R.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, F. S.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature (London) 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sams, R.

Sander, S. P.

C. R. Webster, S. P. Sander, R. Beer, R. D. May, R. G. Knollenberg, D. M. Hunten, J. Ballard, “Tunable diode laser infrared spectrometer for in situ measurements of the gas phase composition and particle size distribution of Titan’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 907–917 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, D. M. Golden, C. E. Kolb, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling: evaluation number 10,” JPL Publ. 92-20 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1992).

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schubauer, G. B.

G. B. Schubauer, C. M. Tchen, Turbulent Flow, C. Donaldson, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1961).

Shanklin, J. D.

J. C. Farman, B. G. Gardiner, J. D. Shanklin, “Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction,” Nature (London) 315, 207–210 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sissom, L. E.

D. R. Pitts, L. E. Sissom, Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature (London) 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, A. C.

Stolarski, R. S.

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Strahan, S. E.

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tchen, C. M.

G. B. Schubauer, C. M. Tchen, Turbulent Flow, C. Donaldson, ed. (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1961).

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toohey, D.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toohey, D. W.

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toon, O. B.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1,284–1,287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toumi, R.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13,851–13,866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R.

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1,284–1,287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wade, L. O.

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. T.

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Albritton, R. T. Watson, “Scientific assessment of stratospheric ozone: 1989,” World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. 20 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1989).

Webster, C. R.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, J. G. Anderson, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, J. Elkins, K. R. Chan, “Hydrochloric acid loss and chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds in the Arctic winter,” Science 261, 1130–1134 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “In situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, 13CH4, N2O, and OC 18O using the BLISS tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 45–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13,851–13,866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, S. P. Sander, R. Beer, R. D. May, R. G. Knollenberg, D. M. Hunten, J. Ballard, “Tunable diode laser infrared spectrometer for in situ measurements of the gas phase composition and particle size distribution of Titan’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 29, 907–917 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the BLISS tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, “Brewster plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of interference fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. T. Menzies, E. D. Hinkley, “Infrared laser absorption: theory and applications,” in Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, R. M. Measures, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 163–272.

Weitkamp, C.

Wilson, J. C.

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Woodbridge, E. L.

D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, M. R. Schoeberl, P. A. Newman, L. R. Lait, D. W. Fahey, E. L. Woodbridge, J. G. Anderson, “The seasonal temporal evolution of reactive chlorine in the Northern hemisphere stratosphere,” Science 261, 1134–1136 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuebbles, D. J.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature (London) 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

D. J. Rader, V. A. Marple, “A study of the effects of anisokinetic sampling,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 8, 283–299 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “In situ stratospheric measurements of CH4, 13CH4, N2O, and OC 18O using the BLISS tunable diode laser spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 45–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Turco, A. Plumb, E. Condon, “The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition: prologue,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 313–316 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1,284–1,287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

I. Langmuir, “The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica, and platinum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361–1375 (1918).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5 in the stratosphere: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, O3, N2O and jNO2 using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13,851–13,866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the BLISS tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,343–16,350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Tuck, R. T. Watson, E. P. Condon, J. J. Margitan, O. B. Toon, “The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September, 1987,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,181–11,222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, S. E. Strahan, “Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,589–11,598 (1989).
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H. I. Schiff, D. R. Karecki, G. W. Harris, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, “A tunable diode laser system for aircraft measurements of trace gases,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10,147–10,153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, K. K. Kelly, G. V. Ferry, L. R. Poole, J. C. Wilson, D. M. Murphy, M. Loewenstein, K. R. Chan, “In situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water, and aerosol in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,299–11,315 (1989).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

R. D. May, C. R. Webster, “Data processing and calibration for tunable diode laser harmonic absorption spectrometers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 335–347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (3)

R. S. Stolarski, A. J. Krueger, M. R. Schoeberl, R. D. McPeters, P. A. Newman, J. C. Alpert, “Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease,” Nature (London) 322, 808–811 (1986).
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[CrossRef]

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Sci. News (1)

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[CrossRef]

Science (2)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the three sampling configurations, subisokinetic, isokinetic, and superisokinetic. The lower portion of the figure shows the position of the protruding ALIAS sample inlet with respect to the ER-2 right spearpod into which the instrument is mounted. Streamline curvature is taken from computer maps by Paul Soderman of NASA Ames, Mountain View, Calif.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the ALIAS instrument in its test flight configuration (with cabling not yet secured).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of main subsystems of ALIAS and their configuration with respect to the ER-2 spearpod and rack.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional schematic of ALIAS subsystems and optical layout.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Custom-made sample tip and its dimensions in inches (1 in. = 2.54 cm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry of the liquid nitrogen Dewar front end optics, showing the laser and detector positions, and the Zn–Se lenses for collimating the laser light and focusing the return beams onto the detectors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Multipass configuration of the ALIAS Herriott cell. The footprint sizes shown are geometric ray trace results and are better represented as Gaussian beam-waist diameters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

ALIAS electronics block diagram (see text for detailed description). NAV, navigation; RTD, resistance temperature devices; IMOD, laser current modulation amplitude; I/O, input–output.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of the laser current scan timing, showing the null integrator pulse and ramp reset. Also shown is the file structure for frames, subframes, and their data content.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Raw spectrum and (b) raw spectrum after normalization to the returned TDL power and conversion to spectroscopic units of absolute absorption levels (0.0074 ≡ 0.74%) and wave-number laser tuning scale, modified from Ref. 15.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Results of the laboratory characterization of the ALIAS response to injected amounts of HCl. The time response is measured for flow rates only approximately half those used in flight. H 2 = peak-to-peak 2f signal level.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Example of the spectral coverage of a typical diode-laser scan over N2O/CH4 features near 7.7 μm, recorded every 3 s during an ER-2 flight in 1992. (b) Trace of the deduced volume mixing ratio of CH4 along the flight track of a flight out of Bangor, Maine, on 18 February, 1992.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison between the second-harmonic flight data spectrum of the region around the HCl R(2) line at 2944.9 cm−1, showing the excellent fit to this line, and numerous other weak CH4 lines in the region. Despite the interference fringe limitations, the flight data indicate that the weak CH4 line at 2944.7 cm−1 in the synthetic spectrum may have its position incorrectly identified.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Flight data of HCl and ClO mixing ratios with time along the flight track for the AASE-II flight of 13 February, 1992. The ClO data, recorded with the Harvard University CIO instrument, were kindly provided by Darrin Toohey of the University of California at Irvine.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Principal Design Specifications for the ALIAS Flow System Configuration

Tables Icon

Table 2 Design Trade-offs for Sampling Cell Temperature Choice

Tables Icon

Table 3 ALIAS Spectrometer Gas Sensitivities Based on the Strongest Vibration-Rotation Linesa

Equations (5)

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S t = ρ p D p 2 U 0 C 18 μ g d ,
T 0 / T = 1 + γ - 1 2 M 2 ,
R i = [ H 2 ( obs ) A ( calc ) H 2 ( calc ) A ( obs ) ] ( D C g A C g ) ( 1 P ) ,
H j ( ν ) = y j ( 1 R i P j ) ( D C g A C g ) ,
σ ( obs ) = H 2 ( obs ) H 2 ( calc ) σ ( calc ) .

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