Abstract

A frequency-stabilized two-mode He–Ne laser has been developed. The intermode beat frequency of the experimental laser was approximately 600 MHz for a 25-cm cavity. The laser frequency in which the mode stands is pulled to the center of the gain curve (frequency pulling). The degree of pulling depends on where the longitudinal modes stand in the broadened gain curve. Beat frequency is thereby changed periodically of the order of hundreds of kilohertz with respect to cavity expansion. The frequency pulling was effectively used for frequency stabilization of the laser. The standing position of the longitudinal mode lights was locked in the gain curve by controlling the change of intermode beat frequency. A microwave mixer was applied to extract the frequency change of the intermode beat. Excellent frequency stability (1010 for the laser oscillation and 106 for the beat frequency) was attained. The polarization orthogonality of the proposed laser was superior to that of Zeeman lasers.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Sasaki, T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yoshino, “Frequency stabilization of internal-mirror He–Ne (λ = 633 nm) lasers using the polarization properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2181–2185 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Araki, Y. Nakajima, N. Suzuki, “Frequency and intensity stabilization of a high output power, internal-mirror He–Ne laser using interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1525–1528 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. K. Hasle, “Polarization properties of He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 206–210 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

1982 (1)

A. Sasaki, T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Yoshino, “Frequency stabilization of internal-mirror He–Ne (λ = 633 nm) lasers using the polarization properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2181–2185 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

E. K. Hasle, “Polarization properties of He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 206–210 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

Araki, T.

Balhorn, R.

Bennett, S. J.

Hasle, E. K.

E. K. Hasle, “Polarization properties of He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 31, 206–210 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

A. Sasaki, T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kunzmann, H.

Lebowsky, F.

Nakajima, Y.

O’ishi, T.

Sasaki, A.

A. Sasaki, T. Hayashi, “Amplitude and frequency stabilization of an internal-mirror He–Ne Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1455–1460 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Seta, K.

Suzuki, N.

Ward, R. E.

Wilson, D. C.

Wu, Y.

Xie, Y.

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, “Frequency stabilization of internal-mirror He–Ne (λ = 633 nm) lasers using the polarization properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2181–2185 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic shapes of the laser gain curve (γ) and the amount of frequency pulling (ν − ν m ) with respect to ν m . The gain curve is assumed to be Gaussian.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Periodic movements of intermode beat spectral lines and longitudinal modes corresponding with λ/2 cavity expansion. (situation of stage 10 is exactly the same as stage 1). (a) Longitudinal modes (A, B, C) standing in the gain curve, (b) movement of adjacent mode beat spectral lines of approximately 600 MHz, and (c) movement of beat spectral line of approximately 1.2 GHz made from mode A and C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed waveforms of heterodyned beat spectral line, when (a) one spectral line stands under two-mode laser oscillation and (b) three spectral lines stand under three-mode oscillation. The observed waveforms are the fundamental beat lines (the 1.2-GHz line was eliminated by the high-cut filter in the diplexer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Changes of the heterodyned beat frequency as a function of cavity expansion. The frequency–voltage (F/V) conversion signal was taken from the output of ITG1 in Fig. 6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Drift of the heterodyned beat frequency with respect to the cavity shrinking. The F/V conversion signal was taken from the output of ITG1 in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of the intermode beat stabilization system. PL, polarizer; APD, avalanche photodiode; DBM, double-balanced mixer; ITG1, integrator with small time constant; ITG2, integrator with large time constant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes of the heterodyned beat frequency before and after the action of the stabilization circuit. The stabilization control was turned on after progressing the free-running operation. The F/V conversion signal was recorded at the output of ITG1 in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Changes of intermode beat frequency obtained from the polarization stabilized laser. The F/V conversion signal was taken from the output of ITG1 in Fig. 6.

Equations (8)

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k = k [ 1 + χ ( ν ) 2 n 2 ] - i k χ ( ν ) 2 n 2 ,
χ ( ν ) = 2 ( ν 0 - ν ) Δ ν χ ( ν ) ,
k L [ 1 + χ ( ν ) 2 n 2 = m π ] ,
ν = ν m + ( ν 0 - ν ) γ ( ν ) c π Δ ν , ν m + ( ν 0 - ν m ) γ ( ν m ) c π Δ ν ,
ν m = m c 2 L ,
γ ( ν ) = - k χ ( ν ) 2 n 2 .
ν b = c 2 L .
d ν b = - c d L 2 L 2 .

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