Abstract

An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5–2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3–6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989–1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  33. E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.
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    [CrossRef]
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  36. E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1994

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water vapor DIAL system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6433–6444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

1990

L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Humidity and particle fields around some small cumulus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 1190–1193 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observations of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

1981

F. Bos, “Versatile high-power single-longitudinal-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1886–1890 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cahen, G. Megie, “A spectral limitation of the range resolved differential absorption lidar technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151–157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, T. D. Wilkerson, “An airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations,” Opt. Eng. 20, 84–90 (1981).

1980

F. Routhier, D. D. Davis, “Free tropospheric/boundary-layer airborne measurements of H2O over the latitude range of 58 °S to 70 °N: comparison with simultaneous ozone and carbon monoxide measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7293–7306 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

1976

S. R. Drayson, “Rapid computation of the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. J.

Bachmeier, A. S.

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

Boesenberg, J.

J. Boesenberg, “A DIAL system for high resolution water vapor measurements in the troposphere,” in Laser and Optical Remote Sensing Instrumentation and Techniques, vol. 18 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 22–25.

Bos, F.

Browell, E. V.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water vapor DIAL system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6433–6444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, S. T. Shipley, R. J. Allen, C. F. Butler, M. N. Mayo, J. H. Siviter, W. M. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, T. D. Wilkerson, “An airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations,” Opt. Eng. 20, 84–90 (1981).

E. V. Browell, J. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McIlrath, “Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474–3483 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, W. M. Hall, R. L. Kenimer, “Signal processing and data smoothing influences in DIAL measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 243–246.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, “Airborne water vapor DIAL system development,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 183–185 (1990).

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Stabilization and spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 76–78.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Optimization of the alexandrite laser tuning elements for a water vapor lidar,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 178–182 (1990).

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

E. V. Browell, “Remote sensing of tropospheric gases and aerosols with an airbornb DIAL system,” in Optical Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 138–147.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Recent technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. in press

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Influence of rotational Raman scattering in DIAL measurements,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italyx, 24–26 June 1988.

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, S. T. Shipley, R. J. Allen, C. F. Butler, M. N. Mayo, J. H. Siviter, W. M. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

C. F. Butler, “Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” Tech. Rep. GSTR-88-1 (Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va., 1988).

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

Cahen, C.

C. Cahen, G. Megie, “A spectral limitation of the range resolved differential absorption lidar technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151–157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, J. L. Lesne, P. Deschamps, P. Y. Thro, “Testing the mobile meteorological DIAL system for humidity and temperature monitoring,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 24–26 June 1988.

Carter, A. F.

Chyba, T. H.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 117–151.

Cooney, J. A.

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

F. Routhier, D. D. Davis, “Free tropospheric/boundary-layer airborne measurements of H2O over the latitude range of 58 °S to 70 °N: comparison with simultaneous ozone and carbon monoxide measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7293–7306 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.

C. Cahen, J. L. Lesne, P. Deschamps, P. Y. Thro, “Testing the mobile meteorological DIAL system for humidity and temperature monitoring,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 24–26 June 1988.

Drayson, S. R.

S. R. Drayson, “Rapid computation of the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

Fenn, M. A.

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

Ferrare, R.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observations of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, F. Schmidlin, “Comparison of lidar and radiosonde measurements of atmospheric moisture profiles,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 232–234.

Gordley, L. L.

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements: a review,” Opt. Eng. 30, 40–48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

Grossmann, B. E.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water vapor DIAL system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6433–6444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Optimization of the alexandrite laser tuning elements for a water vapor lidar,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 178–182 (1990).

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, “Airborne water vapor DIAL system development,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 183–185 (1990).

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Stabilization and spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 76–78.

Hall, W. M.

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, S. T. Shipley, R. J. Allen, C. F. Butler, M. N. Mayo, J. H. Siviter, W. M. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, W. M. Hall, R. L. Kenimer, “Signal processing and data smoothing influences in DIAL measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 243–246.

Higdon, N. S.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water vapor DIAL system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6433–6444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Stabilization and spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 76–78.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, “Airborne water vapor DIAL system development,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 183–185 (1990).

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Optimization of the alexandrite laser tuning elements for a water vapor lidar,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 178–182 (1990).

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

Hobbs, P. V.

L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Humidity and particle fields around some small cumulus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 1190–1193 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Recent technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. in press

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Influence of rotational Raman scattering in DIAL measurements,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italyx, 24–26 June 1988.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, W. M. Hall, R. L. Kenimer, “Signal processing and data smoothing influences in DIAL measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 243–246.

Kenimer, R. L.

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, W. M. Hall, R. L. Kenimer, “Signal processing and data smoothing influences in DIAL measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 243–246.

R. L. Kenimer, “Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar, in Airborne and Spaceborne Lasers for Terrestrial Geophysical Sensing, F. Allario, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.889, 126–135 (1988).

Kiemle, C.

Lawrence, J. D.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lesne, J. L.

C. Cahen, J. L. Lesne, P. Deschamps, P. Y. Thro, “Testing the mobile meteorological DIAL system for humidity and temperature monitoring,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 24–26 June 1988.

Mayo, M. N.

Mayor, S. D.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

McCormick, M. P.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Megie, G.

C. Cahen, G. Megie, “A spectral limitation of the range resolved differential absorption lidar technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151–157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observations of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, F. Schmidlin, “Comparison of lidar and radiosonde measurements of atmospheric moisture profiles,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 232–234.

Ponsardin, P.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water vapor DIAL system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6433–6444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Stabilization and spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 76–78.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, “Airborne water vapor DIAL system development,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 183–185 (1990).

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Optimization of the alexandrite laser tuning elements for a water vapor lidar,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 178–182 (1990).

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

Radke, L. F.

L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Humidity and particle fields around some small cumulus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 1190–1193 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Remsberg, E. E.

Renger, W.

Routhier, F.

F. Routhier, D. D. Davis, “Free tropospheric/boundary-layer airborne measurements of H2O over the latitude range of 58 °S to 70 °N: comparison with simultaneous ozone and carbon monoxide measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7293–7306 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 117–151.

Schmidlin, F.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, F. Schmidlin, “Comparison of lidar and radiosonde measurements of atmospheric moisture profiles,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 232–234.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a ground based optical radar,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, Ann Arbor, Mich., 12–14 April 1966.

Shipley, S. T.

Simmet, G.

Siviter, J. H.

Thro, P. Y.

C. Cahen, J. L. Lesne, P. Deschamps, P. Y. Thro, “Testing the mobile meteorological DIAL system for humidity and temperature monitoring,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 24–26 June 1988.

Whiteman, D.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observations of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, F. Schmidlin, “Comparison of lidar and radiosonde measurements of atmospheric moisture profiles,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 232–234.

Wilkerson, J. D.

Wilkerson, T. D.

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, T. D. Wilkerson, “An airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations,” Opt. Eng. 20, 84–90 (1981).

Appl. Opt.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water vapor DIAL system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6433–6444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Remsberg, L. L. Gordley, “Analysis of differential absorption lidar from the Space Shuttle,” Appl. Opt. 17, 624–630 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, J. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McIlrath, “Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474–3483 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bos, “Versatile high-power single-longitudinal-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1886–1890 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, S. T. Shipley, R. J. Allen, C. F. Butler, M. N. Mayo, J. H. Siviter, W. M. Hall, “NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522–534 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, B. E. Grossmann, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, W. Renger, G. Simmet, “Airborne remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor with a near-infrared differential absorption lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4534–4551 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observations of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

L. F. Radke, P. V. Hobbs, “Humidity and particle fields around some small cumulus clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 1190–1193 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

F. Routhier, D. D. Davis, “Free tropospheric/boundary-layer airborne measurements of H2O over the latitude range of 58 °S to 70 °N: comparison with simultaneous ozone and carbon monoxide measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7293–7306 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadenings and shifts, and temperature dependence of linewidths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

C. Cahen, G. Megie, “A spectral limitation of the range resolved differential absorption lidar technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 151–157 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Drayson, “Rapid computation of the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. V. Browell, A. F. Carter, T. D. Wilkerson, “An airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations,” Opt. Eng. 20, 84–90 (1981).

W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements: a review,” Opt. Eng. 30, 40–48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Cahen, J. L. Lesne, P. Deschamps, P. Y. Thro, “Testing the mobile meteorological DIAL system for humidity and temperature monitoring,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italy, 24–26 June 1988.

E. V. Browell, “Remote sensing of tropospheric gases and aerosols with an airbornb DIAL system,” in Optical Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), pp. 138–147.

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Optimization of the alexandrite laser tuning elements for a water vapor lidar,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 178–182 (1990).

P. Ponsardin, N. S. Higdon, B. E. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Stabilization and spectral characterization of an alexandrite laser for water vapor lidar measurements,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 76–78.

“American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers,” ANSI Z136.1-1986 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1986).

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Influence of rotational Raman scattering in DIAL measurements,” presented at the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, San Candido, Italyx, 24–26 June 1988.

R. L. Kenimer, “Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar, in Airborne and Spaceborne Lasers for Terrestrial Geophysical Sensing, F. Allario, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.889, 126–135 (1988).

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Recent technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. in press

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, W. M. Hall, R. L. Kenimer, “Signal processing and data smoothing influences in DIAL measurements,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 243–246.

C. F. Butler, “Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL),” Tech. Rep. GSTR-88-1 (Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va., 1988).

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, “Airborne water vapor DIAL system development,” in Laser Radar V, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1222, 183–185 (1990).

E. V. Browell, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, B. E. Grossmann, P. Ponsardin, W. B. Grant, A. S. Bachmeier, “Tropospheric water vapor measurements with an airborne lidar system,” presented at the Seventh American Meteorological Society Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, La, 14–18 January 1991.

J. Boesenberg, “A DIAL system for high resolution water vapor measurements in the troposphere,” in Laser and Optical Remote Sensing Instrumentation and Techniques, vol. 18 of 1987 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 22–25.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, T. H. Chyba, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, S. D. Mayor, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Airborne water vapor DIAL research: system development and field measurements,” presented at the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Boston, Mass., 20–25 July 1992.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, F. Schmidlin, “Comparison of lidar and radiosonde measurements of atmospheric moisture profiles,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 232–234.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), pp. 117–151.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. M. Schotland, “Some observations of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a ground based optical radar,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, Ann Arbor, Mich., 12–14 April 1966.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the NASA LaRC airborne H2O DIAL system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration of the alexandrite laser cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical configuration of the Nd:YAG and the dye lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the H2O DIAL laser transmitter subsystem including laser transmitters, wavelength-control equipment, and spectral-monitoring instruments. JY, Jobin–Young, OMA, optical multichannel analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical configuration of the H2O DIAL receiver system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Performance comparison of the APD and the PMT detectors from a flight on 18 April 1991. The plots show (a) the measured mixing ratio profiles, (b) the mixing ratio standard deviation profiles, and (c) the mixing ratio S/N profiles. AGL, above ground level.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Block diagram of the H2O DIAL Data Acquisition System. INS, inertial navigation system; SLU, serial line unit; MOS, master operating system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the DIAL and the DPT (dew-point hygrometer) H2O volume mixing ratio (parts in 103) profiles at a location appproximately 125 km east of the Virginia coast during a nighttime flight on 15 March 1990.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the DIAL and the DPT 300 hygrometer mixing ratio profiles over Emporia, Virginia, from an afternoon flight on 22 March 1990.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cross sections of (a) relative aerosol backscatter and (b) H2O mass mixing ratio (grams per kilogram) obtained during a flight across the coast of Virginia on 22 March 1990. ASL, above sea level; LAT, latitude; LON, longitude.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Intercomparison of H2O measurements with the DIAL system, the DPT 300 hygrometer, and a Vaisala radiosonde over the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) at the end of the flight on 22 March 1990.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of the DIAL and the DPT 300 hygrometer mixing ratios over Nashville, Tennessee, during a daytime flight on 2 April 1990. The profiles were obtained on the dry side of a cold front.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of the H2O mixing ratio and scattering ratio profiles from measurements performed during the daytime on 16 April 1991.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Cross sections of H2O mixing ratio distributions obtained during a flight along the Eastern Shore of Virginia on 18 April 1991 by use of (a) a PMT detector in the receiver system (flying north at an altitude of 4.5 km) and (b) an APD detector in the receiver system (flying south at an altitude of 7.1 km; the APD plot has been reversed for easier comparison with the PMT plot).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Performance comparison of APD (aircraft altitude 7.1 km) and PMT (aircraft altitude 4.5 km) from a flight on 18 April 1991. The plots show (a) the measured mixing ratio profiles, (b) the mixing ratio standard deviation profiles (APD profile adjusted for range difference), and (c) the mixing ratio S/N profiles.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Airborne H2O DIAL Transmitter Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2 Airborne H2O DIAL Receiver Characteristics

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( R ) = P 0 ( c τ / 2 ) R - 2 A η β ( R ) × exp { 0 - R - 2 [ σ n ( R ) + k ( R ) ] d R } ,
n ( R ) = 1 2 ( R 2 - R 1 ) ( σ on - σ off ) ln P off ( R 2 ) P on ( R 1 ) P off ( R 1 ) P on ( R 2 ) ,
R ( r ) = β m ( r ) + β a ( r ) β m ( r ) = 1 + β a ( r ) β m ( r ) .

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