Abstract

An automatic three-dimensional spectrogoniometer is presented. The wavelength of ligth and angles of incidence and observation are variable, making it capable of performing different optical characterizations in an integrated way.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Part 1.
  2. L. Ward, The Optical Constants of Bulk Material and Films (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chaps. 2 and 3.
  3. F. Abeles, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 151–204.
  4. G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. N. Deeter, D. Sarid, “Determination of optical constants by angle scanning reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2911–2913(1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. P. Barysheva, G. P. Golubev, I. K. Kaufman, “Effect of surface roughness on thin-film optical properties,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 70, 634–636 (1991).
  8. B. J. Stagg, T. T. Charalampopoulos, “Surface-roughness effects on the determination of optical properties of materials by the reflection method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4113–4118 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. SOPRA, 26 rue Pierre Joigneaux, 92270 Bois Colombes, France.
  10. The integrating sphere is a modification added by the authors to the original configuration of the SOPRA spectrogoniometer.
  11. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), pp. 269–285.
  12. G. E. Jellison, “Optical functions of Si determined by two channel polarization modulation ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. 1, 41–47(1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, “Optical functions of Si determined by two channel polarization modulation ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. 1, 41–47(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Barysheva, G. P. Golubev, I. K. Kaufman, “Effect of surface roughness on thin-film optical properties,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 70, 634–636 (1991).

B. J. Stagg, T. T. Charalampopoulos, “Surface-roughness effects on the determination of optical properties of materials by the reflection method,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4113–4118 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 151–204.

Ashrit, P. V.

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), pp. 269–285.

Bader, G.

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barysheva, T. P.

T. P. Barysheva, G. P. Golubev, I. K. Kaufman, “Effect of surface roughness on thin-film optical properties,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 70, 634–636 (1991).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), pp. 269–285.

Charalampopoulos, T. T.

Deeter, M. N.

Elouatik, S.

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

García-Llamas, R.

L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Girouard, F. E.

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Golubev, G. P.

T. P. Barysheva, G. P. Golubev, I. K. Kaufman, “Effect of surface roughness on thin-film optical properties,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 70, 634–636 (1991).

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, “Optical functions of Si determined by two channel polarization modulation ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. 1, 41–47(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, I. K.

T. P. Barysheva, G. P. Golubev, I. K. Kaufman, “Effect of surface roughness on thin-film optical properties,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 70, 634–636 (1991).

Leyva-Lucero, M.

L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Machorro, R.

L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Regalado, L. E.

L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

Stagg, B. J.

Troung, Vo-Van

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ward, L.

L. Ward, The Optical Constants of Bulk Material and Films (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chaps. 2 and 3.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

L. E. Regalado, R. Machorro, M. Leyva-Lucero, R. García-Llamas, “Angle scanning reflectometry: study of two characteristic isoreflectance angles,” J. Phys. D 25, 1365–1370 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

G. E. Jellison, “Optical functions of Si determined by two channel polarization modulation ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. 1, 41–47(1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

T. P. Barysheva, G. P. Golubev, I. K. Kaufman, “Effect of surface roughness on thin-film optical properties,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 70, 634–636 (1991).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Bader, P. V. Ashrit, S. Elouatik, F. E. Girouard, Vo-Van Troung, “Determination of thin-film optical constants with an automatic reflectance and transmittance goniometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2398–2404 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Part 1.

L. Ward, The Optical Constants of Bulk Material and Films (Hilger, Bristol, 1988), Chaps. 2 and 3.

F. Abeles, in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 151–204.

SOPRA, 26 rue Pierre Joigneaux, 92270 Bois Colombes, France.

The integrating sphere is a modification added by the authors to the original configuration of the SOPRA spectrogoniometer.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), pp. 269–285.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Spectrogoniometer scheme: M, mirror; (b) the coordinate system as explained in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Specular reflectance of a Si wafer with a SiO2 layer. The measurement is represented by circles (S-polarized light) and squares (P-polarized light), and the simulation is represented by a continuous curve. The simulation takes into account a thickness of 2.530 μm and optical constants from the literature (see text), (a) Reflectance versus angle of incidence at a wavelength of 450 nm. (b) Reflectance versus wavelength (from 380 to 720 nm) at a 60° angle of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative luminance (logarithmic scale) over the angle of view of retroreflector paint used in traffic signaling in dry or wet conditions: ■, the luminance of the retroreflector when the surface is dry; ○, the retroreflector when the surface is wet (covered by an aqueous film); *, paint without retroreflecting microspheres in dry conditions.

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