Abstract

We have measured the birefringence of polycarbonate optical disk substrates, using ellipsometry. For a more comprehensive characterization, the probe beam was incident upon substrates in a wide range of polar angles and from different azimuths relative to track direction (ϕ). Our measurements show that the ellipsoid of birefringence is tilted in the plane of radial (r) and normal (z) directions. The tilt angle varies through thickness, with a maximum value of approximately 10°. For beams passing through the substrate in the ϕ−z plane and at large incident angles, this tilt causes significant conversion (up to 100%) between p- and s-polarized components. Distributions of other parameters, such as the values of in-plane and vertical birefringence, are obtained simultaneously in the measurements.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Effect of birefringence on optical memory systems,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 262–269 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. B. Marchant, “Retardation effects in magneto-optic readout,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 270–276 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. A. Challener, T. A. Rinehart, “Jones matrix analysis of magneto-optical media and read-back systems,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3974–3980 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).
  5. A. Yoshizawa, N. Matsubayashi, “Analysis of optical anisotropy of PC substrate for MO disks and its effect on CNR,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 91–98 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Prikryl, “Effect of disk birefringence on a differential magneto-optic readout,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1853–1862 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Wimberger-Friedl, “Analysis of the birefringence distributions in compact disks of polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 813 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Takahashi, M. Mieda, Y. Murakami, K. Ohta, H. Yamaoka, “Influence of birefringence on the signal quality of magneto-optical disks using polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2863–2866 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Hayden, S. D. Jacobs, “Automated spatially scanning ellipsometer for retardation measurements of transparent materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6256–6263 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Skumanich, “Substrate birefringence in coated optical storage disks,” J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 17, 237–240 (1993).
  13. H. Fu, S. Sugaya, J. K. Erwin, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of birefringence for optical recording disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1938–1949 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Fu, Z. Yan, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of the wavelength dependence of birefringence for optical disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 × 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. Fu, Z. Yan, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of the wavelength dependence of birefringence for optical disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fu, S. Sugaya, J. K. Erwin, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of birefringence for optical recording disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1938–1949 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1990 (3)

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Wimberger-Friedl, “Analysis of the birefringence distributions in compact disks of polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 813 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 × 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1963 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abders, S.

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bloomberg, D. S.

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Effect of birefringence on optical memory systems,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 262–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W. A.

Erwin, J. K.

Fu, H.

H. Fu, S. Sugaya, J. K. Erwin, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of birefringence for optical recording disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1938–1949 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fu, Z. Yan, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of the wavelength dependence of birefringence for optical disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigo, U.

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. E.

Jacobs, S. D.

Mansuripur, M.

H. Fu, S. Sugaya, J. K. Erwin, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of birefringence for optical recording disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1938–1949 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fu, Z. Yan, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of the wavelength dependence of birefringence for optical disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 × 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, A. B.

A. B. Marchant, “Retardation effects in magneto-optic readout,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 270–276 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Matsubayashi, N.

A. Yoshizawa, N. Matsubayashi, “Analysis of optical anisotropy of PC substrate for MO disks and its effect on CNR,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 91–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Mieda, M.

Murakami, Y.

Nakagawa, T.

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

Ojima, M.

T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).

Passaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Prikryl, I.

Rateike, F. M.

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rinehart, T. A.

Sakamoto, S.

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, H.

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shigematsu, K.

T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shirouzu, S.

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siebourg, W.

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skumanich, A.

A. Skumanich, “Substrate birefringence in coated optical storage disks,” J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 17, 237–240 (1993).

Steinberg, H. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stromberg, R. R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Sugaya, S.

Tagami, S.

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, A.

Toda, T.

T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).

Treves, D.

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Effect of birefringence on optical memory systems,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 262–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wimberger-Friedl, R.

R. Wimberger-Friedl, “Analysis of the birefringence distributions in compact disks of polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 813 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, H.

Yan, Z.

H. Fu, Z. Yan, M. Mansuripur, “Measurement of the wavelength dependence of birefringence for optical disk substrates,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshihiro, M.

T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa, N. Matsubayashi, “Analysis of optical anisotropy of PC substrate for MO disks and its effect on CNR,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 91–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Electron. Commun. Jpn. (1)

T. Toda, K. Shigematsu, M. Ojima, M. Yoshihiro, “Analysis of signal-to-noise ratio in magneto-optical disk using a polarization simulator,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, 49–57 (1989).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Mansuripur, “Analysis of multilayer thin-film structures containing magneto-optic and anisotropic media at oblique incidence using 2 × 2 matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6466–6475 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. (1)

A. Skumanich, “Substrate birefringence in coated optical storage disks,” J. Magn. Soc. Jpn. 17, 237–240 (1993).

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Passaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. L. Steinberg, “Measurement of the thickness and refractive index of very thin films and the optical properties of surfaces by ellipsometry,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 363–377 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Shirouzu, K. Shigematsu, S. Sakamoto, T. Nakagawa, S. Tagami, “Refractive index ellipsoids of a polycarbonate magneto-optical memory disk substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 797–800 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (2)

R. Wimberger-Friedl, “Analysis of the birefringence distributions in compact disks of polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 813 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Siebourg, H. Schmid, F. M. Rateike, S. Abders, U. Grigo, “Birefringence—an important property of plastic substrates for magneto-optical storage disks,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 30, 1133–1139 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Effect of birefringence on optical memory systems,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 262–269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Marchant, “Retardation effects in magneto-optic readout,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 270–276 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, N. Matsubayashi, “Analysis of optical anisotropy of PC substrate for MO disks and its effect on CNR,” in Optical Mass Data Storage II, R. P. Freese, A. A. Jamberdino, M. de Haan, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.695, 91–98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Assumed cross section of a substrate in model calculations. The EOB in each layer may be tilted in the rz plane by a different angle. For substrates coated with a MO medium, the quadrilayer structure of the coating layers must also be taken into account.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Glass hemisphere (n = 1.52 at both λ = 500 and 633 nm) used to eliminate refraction of the incident beam on entering the substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement data and best fit for sample PC3.5B02: θ (○) and ∊ (●) versus θinc for (a) (Φinc, ψpol) = (0°, 60°), set 1; (b) (Φinc, ψpol) = (90°, 60°), set 2; (c) (Φinc, ψpol) = (90°, 0°), set 3; (d) (Φinc, ψpol) = (90°, 90°), set 4. (e) Intensities Ipref (□) and Isref (■) of the reflected p- and s-polarized components for a p-polarized incident beam with Φinc = 90°.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC3.5B02

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Table 2 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC3.5B03

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Table 3 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC5.25B03, Region without Preformat Marks

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Table 4 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC5.25B03, Region with Preformat Marks

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Table 5 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC3.5C01

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Table 6 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC5.25C03, Location 1

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Table 7 Birefringence Properties of Sample PC5.25C03, Location 2

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