Abstract

The integrated optical configuration of a Young interferometer is proposed for refractometry and chemical sensing. We coupled light into an integrated optical Y branch by fixing a laser diode directly at the input of the optical device. We solved the problem of ambiguity in the interference order by operating the laser diode at currents below threshold, resulting in visibility modulation of the interference fringes caused by the low coherence length of the emitted light. A very compact device results that measures the refractive index of liquids or gases. An electronic scanning technique by means of a CCD array provides a fast readout without the need for moving parts.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1989), Vol. 2, pp. 329–380.
  2. R. T. Kersten, “Integrated optics for sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1988), Vol. 1, pp. 277–317.
  3. S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, “Partially coherent sources in interferometric sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.
  4. T. Bosselmann, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy position-sensing with fiber-coupled white-light interferograms,” presented at the Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984.
  5. A. Koch, R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic displacement sensor with 0.02 μm resolution by white-light interferometry,” Sensors Actuators A 25-27, 201–207 (1991).
  6. R. Böhm, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy fiber-optic refractometer for fluids,” presented at the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Sydney, Australia, 1990.
  7. S. Chen, A. J. Rogers, B. T. Meggit, “Electronically scanned optical-fiber Young's interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 16, 761–763 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Chen, B. T. Meggit, A. J. Rogers, “Electronically scanned white light interferometer with enhanced dynamic range,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1663–1664 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.
  10. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 8.
  11. W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, F. Hutter, “Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 361–374 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Bosselmann, “Spektral-kodierte Positionübertragung mittels fasergekoppelter Weisslichtinterferometer,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1985).
  15. K. Itoh, “Analysis of the phase unwrapping algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2470 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. E. Cook, M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: An introduction to Theory and Application (Academic, New York, 1967).

1993 (1)

A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, F. Hutter, “Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 361–374 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

A. Koch, R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic displacement sensor with 0.02 μm resolution by white-light interferometry,” Sensors Actuators A 25-27, 201–207 (1991).

S. Chen, A. J. Rogers, B. T. Meggit, “Electronically scanned optical-fiber Young's interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 16, 761–763 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. Chen, B. T. Meggit, A. J. Rogers, “Electronically scanned white light interferometer with enhanced dynamic range,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1663–1664 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Al-Chalabi, S. A.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, “Partially coherent sources in interferometric sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Batchelder, D. N.

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Bernfeld, M.

C. E. Cook, M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: An introduction to Theory and Application (Academic, New York, 1967).

Böhm, R.

R. Böhm, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy fiber-optic refractometer for fluids,” presented at the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Sydney, Australia, 1990.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 8.

Bosselmann, T.

T. Bosselmann, “Spektral-kodierte Positionübertragung mittels fasergekoppelter Weisslichtinterferometer,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1985).

T. Bosselmann, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy position-sensing with fiber-coupled white-light interferograms,” presented at the Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984.

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, F. Hutter, “Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 361–374 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, A. J. Rogers, B. T. Meggit, “Electronically scanned optical-fiber Young's interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 16, 761–763 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, B. T. Meggit, A. J. Rogers, “Electronically scanned white light interferometer with enhanced dynamic range,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1663–1664 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cook, C. E.

C. E. Cook, M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: An introduction to Theory and Application (Academic, New York, 1967).

Culshaw, B.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, “Partially coherent sources in interferometric sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Davies, D. E. N.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, “Partially coherent sources in interferometric sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Edelhäuser, R.

A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, F. Hutter, “Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 361–374 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
[Crossref]

Foulds, K. W. H.

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Hutter, F.

A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, F. Hutter, “Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 361–374 (1993).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

Jackson, D.

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1989), Vol. 2, pp. 329–380.

Jones, J.

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1989), Vol. 2, pp. 329–380.

Jones, R. E.

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Kersten, R. T.

R. T. Kersten, “Integrated optics for sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1988), Vol. 1, pp. 277–317.

Koch, A.

A. Koch, R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic displacement sensor with 0.02 μm resolution by white-light interferometry,” Sensors Actuators A 25-27, 201–207 (1991).

Konz, W.

W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
[Crossref]

Meggit, B. T.

S. Chen, A. J. Rogers, B. T. Meggit, “Electronically scanned optical-fiber Young's interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 16, 761–763 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, B. T. Meggit, A. J. Rogers, “Electronically scanned white light interferometer with enhanced dynamic range,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1663–1664 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ott, W.

W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
[Crossref]

Pitt, G. D.

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Pratt, R. H.

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rogers, A. J.

S. Chen, A. J. Rogers, B. T. Meggit, “Electronically scanned optical-fiber Young's interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 16, 761–763 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, B. T. Meggit, A. J. Rogers, “Electronically scanned white light interferometer with enhanced dynamic range,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1663–1664 (1990).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, R.

A. Koch, R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic displacement sensor with 0.02 μm resolution by white-light interferometry,” Sensors Actuators A 25-27, 201–207 (1991).

T. Bosselmann, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy position-sensing with fiber-coupled white-light interferograms,” presented at the Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984.

R. Böhm, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy fiber-optic refractometer for fluids,” presented at the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Sydney, Australia, 1990.

Willson, J. P.

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 8.

Wölfelschneider, H.

W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Chen, B. T. Meggit, A. J. Rogers, “Electronically scanned white light interferometer with enhanced dynamic range,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1663–1664 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors Actuators A (1)

A. Koch, R. Ulrich, “Fiber-optic displacement sensor with 0.02 μm resolution by white-light interferometry,” Sensors Actuators A 25-27, 201–207 (1991).

Sensors Actuators B (1)

A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, F. Hutter, “Integrated optical gas sensors using organically modified silicates as sensitive films,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 361–374 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

R. Böhm, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy fiber-optic refractometer for fluids,” presented at the Seventh International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Sydney, Australia, 1990.

T. Bosselmann, “Spektral-kodierte Positionübertragung mittels fasergekoppelter Weisslichtinterferometer,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1985).

C. E. Cook, M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: An introduction to Theory and Application (Academic, New York, 1967).

R. E. Jones, J. P. Willson, G. D. Pitt, R. H. Pratt, K. W. H. Foulds, D. N. Batchelder, “Detection techniques for measurement of DC magnetic fields using optical fiber sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 8.

W. Konz, A. Brandenburg, R. Edelhäuser, W. Ott, H. Wölfelschneider, “A refractometer with fully packaged integrated optical sensor head,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, H. J. Arditty, J. P. Dakin, R. Th. Kersten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 443–447.
[Crossref]

D. Jackson, J. Jones, “Interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1989), Vol. 2, pp. 329–380.

R. T. Kersten, “Integrated optics for sensors,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, B. Culshaw, J. Dakin, eds. (Artech, Norwood, Mass., 1988), Vol. 1, pp. 277–317.

S. A. Al-Chalabi, B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, “Partially coherent sources in interferometric sensors,” presented at the First International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, London, 1983.

T. Bosselmann, R. Ulrich, “High-accuracy position-sensing with fiber-coupled white-light interferograms,” presented at the Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated optical Young interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity distributions on the surface of the CCD array calculated according to Eq. (6) with λ0 = 790 nm, f = 170 mm, d = 3 mm, σa = 3 mm, and σγ = 16 π. (a) δ = 0, (b) δ = 20 π.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of the integrated optical device: (a) structure for evanescent field sensing; (b) device with a flow-through cell at the end face of the chip: d, distance between the guides; l, distance over which light waves are influenced.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Integrated optical device with a semiconductor laser (rear) and flow-through cells (front) coupled to the chip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interference signature of a Hitachi HLP 1400 laser diode with reduced end face reflectivity as measured with a conventional Michelson interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interferogram taken with an integrated optical Young interferometer (laser diode, Hitachi HL 7806G).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensor system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fit of a Gaussian function to the local maxima of the interference signature.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase resolution depending on the signal-to-noise ratio.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Change in the effective refractive index produced by a thin-film heater. P, dissipated electrical power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured refractive indices of different sugar solutions. Horizontal axis, measurements with an Abbé refractometer. Vertical axis, measurements with Young's interferometer.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Refractive-index measurements of gases. Test gases, CO2 and N2; reference gas, N2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Evanescent-wave measurement of a sugar solution and pure water.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ s = nd f x ,
f d ,
ϕ = 2 π λ 0 Δ s = 2 π λ 0 nd f x ,
I ( x ) = 1 + cos [ ϕ ( x ) δ ]
p = f λ 0 nd .
I ( x ) = a ( x ) { 1 + γ [ ϕ ( x ) δ ] cos [ ϕ ( x ) δ ] } .
q i = w { 1 + sinc [ π ( w / p ) ] cos [ 2 π i ( w / p ) ] } ,
q i = w { 1 + cos [ 2 π i ( w / p ) ] } .
a ( x ) = exp [ ( x / σ a ) 2 ] ,
γ ( x ) = exp ( { [ ϕ ( x ) δ ] / σ γ } 2 ) .
δ = 2 π l λ 0 Δ n ,

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