Abstract

Polarization-independent trap detectors, in which light is strongly absorbed through multiple reflections, are generically described in terms of the symmetry planes of a cube. The detailed design of a four-element transmission trap with coaxial input and output beams is presented. It is shown that such a trap retains polarization-dependent loss and that six detectors are required for a polarization independent transmission trap with coaxial beams.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. F. Zalewski, C. R. Duda, “Silicon photodiode device with 100% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2867–2873 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. P. Fox, J. E. Martin, “Comparison of two cryogenic radiometers by determining the absolute spectral responsivity of silicon photodiodes with an uncertainty of 0.02%,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4686–4693 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Kohler, “Optical radiation measurements at the BIPM,” presented at the U.S. Council for Optical Radiation Measurements meeting, Gaithersburg, Md., 18–21 May 1993.
  6. C. Cromer, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication, 1993).
  7. J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 320.
  8. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth, London, 1955), Chap. 4.

1991 (2)

R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

Bonhoure, J.

R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C.

C. Cromer, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication, 1993).

Duda, C. R.

Fox, N. P.

Goebel, R.

R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth, London, 1955), Chap. 4.

Kohler, R.

R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Kohler, “Optical radiation measurements at the BIPM,” presented at the U.S. Council for Optical Radiation Measurements meeting, Gaithersburg, Md., 18–21 May 1993.

Martin, J. E.

Pello, R.

R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. M.

J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 320.

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Metrologia (2)

R. Kohler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. Kohler, “Optical radiation measurements at the BIPM,” presented at the U.S. Council for Optical Radiation Measurements meeting, Gaithersburg, Md., 18–21 May 1993.

C. Cromer, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication, 1993).

J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), p. 320.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworth, London, 1955), Chap. 4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conventional three-element reflection trap, with beam directions aligned along the sides of a cube. Planes of reflection are shaded.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Folded three-element reflection trap, with beams in orthogonal planes in a cube. Planes of reflection are shaded.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Generic diagram for polarization-independent reflection and transmission traps, with beams aligned along the sides of a cube. Reflection traps are formed with matched photodiodes returning the input beam at positions 3 or 5. Transmission traps are formed with beams emerging after two, four, or six reflections from matched photodiodes as shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detector alignment for a polarization-independent, fourelement transmission trap with coaxial input and output beams. Photodiodes B and C lie in the shaded top and side planes of the cube, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Loss (fraction of input light not absorbed) by a three-element reflection trap and four- and six-element coaxial transmission traps. The four-element data (dashed curves) are the maximum (divided by a factor of 2) and minimum losses for a linearly polarized beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Isometric view of the four-element coaxial transmission trap with Hamamatsu S1337 photodiodes.

Equations (13)

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n / sin θ ( cos θ , d / r cos θ , sin θ ) ,
n / sin θ ( d / r cos θ , cos θ , sin θ ) ,
d / r = ( cos 2 θ + 1 ) / 2 cos θ ,
E = T r E ,
E = [ E p E s ]
T r = [ r p 0 0 r s ]
T α = [ cos α sin α sin α cos α ] .
cos α = 2 cos θ / ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) .
T = T 90 T ro T α T ri T 90 T ri T α T ro .
T = r so r po r si r pi [ r po / r so sin 2 α cos 2 α cos 2 α r so / r po sin 2 α ] .
( r + d / 2 ) / w sin θ .
1 ( 1 + 2 r / d ) cos θ .
( cos θ + 1 ) ( cos θ 2 + 1 ) ( cos θ + 2 + 1 ) = 0 .

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