Abstract

A multiwavelength lidar operated in Sodankyla, Finland, during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (December 1991–March 1992). It produced vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols at four wavelengths. The determination of aerosol mean size distribution has been performed by use of extinction/backscattering ratios as obtained from lidar data processing at 355, 352, and 750 nm. Log-normal distributions of sulfuric particles with mode radius of rm = 0.12–0.25 μm and corresponding widths of s = 2–1.6 have been retrieved as best fits of experimental data, in good agreement with in situ measurements. A successful attempt to derive bimodal log-normal distributions is also described, together with the experimental and theoretical problems involved.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscattering/extinction ratio,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Morandi, “A complete procedure for inverting backscattering lidar returns,” Research Rep. RR/GCF/92.11 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenzo, Italy, 1992).
  5. J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).
  6. K. Parmameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. Krishna Murty, “Relationship between backscattering and extinction coefficients of aerosols with application to turbid atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3059–3071 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), Chap. 9, pp. 114–128.
  8. M. Del Guasta, “A fortran code for quick computing of light scattered by spherical particles, with particular reference to backscattering lidar,” CNR Rep. TR/GCF/91.22 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenze, Italy, 1992).
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    [PubMed]
  10. S. G. Warren, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1206–1225 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Analysis of the 5-year aerosol data from stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15479–15497 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Morandi, “EASOE four wavelength lidar data analysis: preliminary reuslts,” Tech. Rep. TR/GCF/92.27 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenze, Italy, 1992).
  14. N. Larsen, “Stratospheric aerosols: backscatter measurements from Thule European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment,” Danish Meteorological Institute Scientific Rep. 92-1 (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, 1992).
  15. T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).
  16. T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of the size distribution of the Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

1992 (2)

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).

1991 (2)

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Analysis of the 5-year aerosol data from stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15479–15497 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Parmameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. Krishna Murty, “Relationship between backscattering and extinction coefficients of aerosols with application to turbid atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3059–3071 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, R. Reiter, H. Jager, “Lidar and balloonborne particle counter comparison following recent volcanic eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3777–3782 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1975 (1)

Brogniez, C.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Analysis of the 5-year aerosol data from stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15479–15497 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Castagnoli, F.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Del Guasta, M.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

M. Del Guasta, “A fortran code for quick computing of light scattered by spherical particles, with particular reference to backscattering lidar,” CNR Rep. TR/GCF/91.22 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenze, Italy, 1992).

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).

T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of the size distribution of the Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Hofmann, D. J.

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, R. Reiter, H. Jager, “Lidar and balloonborne particle counter comparison following recent volcanic eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3777–3782 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jager, H.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, R. Reiter, H. Jager, “Lidar and balloonborne particle counter comparison following recent volcanic eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3777–3782 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).

Klett, J. D.

Kneipp, H.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kolenda, J.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Krishna Murty, B. V.

Larsen, N.

N. Larsen, “Stratospheric aerosols: backscatter measurements from Thule European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment,” Danish Meteorological Institute Scientific Rep. 92-1 (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, 1992).

Lenoble, J.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Analysis of the 5-year aerosol data from stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15479–15497 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mielke, B.

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Morandi, M.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

M. Morandi, “EASOE four wavelength lidar data analysis: preliminary reuslts,” Tech. Rep. TR/GCF/92.27 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenze, Italy, 1992).

M. Morandi, “A complete procedure for inverting backscattering lidar returns,” Research Rep. RR/GCF/92.11 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenzo, Italy, 1992).

Palmer, K. F.

Parmameswaran, K.

Rairoux, P.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Reiter, R.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, R. Reiter, H. Jager, “Lidar and balloonborne particle counter comparison following recent volcanic eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3777–3782 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rose, K. O.

Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, R. Reiter, H. Jager, “Lidar and balloonborne particle counter comparison following recent volcanic eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3777–3782 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).

Sacco, V. M.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Stefanutti, L.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Stein, B.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), Chap. 9, pp. 114–128.

Venturi, V.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Warren, S. G.

Weidauer, D.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Williams, D.

Wolf, J. P.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Woste, L.

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Zuccagnoli, L.

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Stefanutti, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, J. Kolenda, H. Kneipp, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar for PSC monitoring,” Appl. Phys. 55, 13–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1992).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, R. Reiter, H. Jager, “Lidar and balloonborne particle counter comparison following recent volcanic eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3777–3782 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Analysis of the 5-year aerosol data from stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15479–15497 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Morandi, “EASOE four wavelength lidar data analysis: preliminary reuslts,” Tech. Rep. TR/GCF/92.27 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenze, Italy, 1992).

N. Larsen, “Stratospheric aerosols: backscatter measurements from Thule European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment,” Danish Meteorological Institute Scientific Rep. 92-1 (Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, 1992).

M. Morandi, “A complete procedure for inverting backscattering lidar returns,” Research Rep. RR/GCF/92.11 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenzo, Italy, 1992).

J. Kolenda, B. Mielke, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, L. Woste, F. Castagnoli, M. Del Guasta, M. Morandi, V. M. Sacco, L. Stefanutti, V. Venturi, L. Zuccagnoli, “Aerosol size distribution measurements using a multispectral lidar-system,” in Lidar for Remote Sensing, R. J. Becherer, R. M. Hardesty, J. P. Meyzonnette, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1714, 209–219 (1992).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), Chap. 9, pp. 114–128.

M. Del Guasta, “A fortran code for quick computing of light scattered by spherical particles, with particular reference to backscattering lidar,” CNR Rep. TR/GCF/91.22 (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elletromagnetiche, Firenze, Italy, 1992).

T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of the size distribution of the Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample of multiwavelength lidar measurement. The squared-range-corrected lidar signals are shown in arbitrary units. The three profiles are almost simultaneous, the downward slope being given by the molecular scattering. By processing such profiles, aerosol backscattering and extinction/backscattering ratios are obtained.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction/backscattering ratio at 532 nm (k532) simulated for monomodal log-normal distributions of 38% sulfuric acid droplets. The x axis is the mode radius rm, and the y axis is the distribution dimensionless width s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 but for 50% sulfuric acid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 2 but for 75% sulfuric acid.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction/backscattering ratio at 750 nm (k750) simulated for monomodal log-normal distributions of sulfuric acid droplets. The x axis is the mode radius rm, and the y axis is the distribution dimensionless width s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of the experimental value of the extinction/backscattering ratio at 355 nm obtained under the hypothesis of molecular atmosphere (Ro = 1) below Mt. Pinatubo’s aerosol layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but for 532-nm wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 6 but for 750-nm wavelength.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 6 but for 850-nm wavelength.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependency of kj from the value R532 assumed below the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol layer. The linear fits of the results are reported. kj units are [sr].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Constant-value plot of χ2 (rm, s) for a monomodal distribution. The hatched areas are the bottom of the χ2 surface, corresponding to the best fit of experimental kj data with simulated kj data for 50% sulfuric acid, Ro532 = 1.03.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Experimental Extinction/Backscattering Ratios (kj) and Relative Standard Deviations (σj) at the Different Laser Wavelengths and with Three Hypotheses on Ro Below the Cloud Base

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Table 2 Retrieved Size Distributions (rm, Mode Radius; s, Width) from 355-, 532-, and 750-nm Lidar Data under Three Hypothesis on Roa

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Table 3 Bimodal Distribution Fitting of Lidar Dataa

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Table 4 Bimodal Distribution Fitting of Lidar Dataa

Equations (5)

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d ( z ) = exp ( c 1 + c 2 z + c 3 z 2 + c 4 z 3 + c 5 z 4 ) ,
R = ( β a + β m ) / β m ,
β ( z ) = K 1 σ ( z ) K 2 ,
N ( r ) = N t 2 π r ln ( s ) exp { - 0.5 [ ln ( r / r m ) / ln ( s ) ] 2 } ,
χ 2 ( r m , s ) = j = 1 3 [ ( k j - k s j ) / σ j ] 2 ,

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