Abstract

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an efficient technique for the detection and quantification of molecules in gas mixtures. Measurement results from a mobile laboratory for ambient air analysis and for remote sensing of plume emission with the commercially available K300 spectrometer are reported. CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O, NH3, CH4, SO2, H2O, HCl, and HCHO concentrations have been determined with good agreement with in situ results. The on-line multicomponent analysis software is based on line-by-line retrieval and least-squares fitting procedures, including the effects of multiple aerosol scattering and cloud and rain influences.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. F. Herget, “Remote and cross-stack measurement of stack gas concentrations using a mobile FT–IR system,” Appl. Opt. 21, 635–641 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. R. Haus, H. Goering, “Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse” (Heinrich-Hertz Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, 1991).
  22. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database, 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4096 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. C. Jaacks, H. Rippel, “Double pendulum Michelson interferometer with extended spectral resolution,” Appl. Opt. 28, 29–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

1988 (2)

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Carlson, A. F. Hayden, W. B. Telfair, “Remote observations of effluents from small building smokestacks using FTIR spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4952–4959 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1982 (2)

P. L. Hanst, N. W. Wong, J. Bragin, “A long path infrared study of Los Angeles smog,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 969–981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Herget, “Analysis of gaseous air pollutions using a mobile FTIR system,” Am. Environ. Lab. 14, 72–78 (1982).

1979 (1)

1967 (1)

M. J. D. Low, F. K. Clancy, “Remote sensing and characterization of stack gases by infrared spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 1, 73–74 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axelsson, H.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

Barbe, A.

Biermann, H. W.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, H.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, H. Bittner, H. Mosebach, “Remote sensing of air pollution by mobile Fourier transform spectroscopy: modeling and first results of measurements,” in Proceedings on Optical Remote Sensing and Application to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problems (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper SP-81.

H. Bittner, M. Erhard, I. Neureither, H. Mosebach, H. Rippel, “The K300 Fourier transform spectrometer: environmental applications of the double pendulum interferometer,” in Eighth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, H. M. Heise, E. H Korte, H. W. Siesler, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1575, 186–188 (1992).

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Bragin, J.

P. L. Hanst, N. W. Wong, J. Bragin, “A long path infrared study of Los Angeles smog,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 969–981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Brasher, J. D.

Brown, L. R.

Burton, C. S.

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

Camy-Peyret, C.

Carlson, R. C.

Carter, R.E.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Chaney, L. W.

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

Clancy, F. K.

M. J. D. Low, F. K. Clancy, “Remote sensing and characterization of stack gases by infrared spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 1, 73–74 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenmann, T.

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Erhard, M.

H. Bittner, M. Erhard, I. Neureither, H. Mosebach, H. Rippel, “The K300 Fourier transform spectrometer: environmental applications of the double pendulum interferometer,” in Eighth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, H. M. Heise, E. H Korte, H. W. Siesler, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1575, 186–188 (1992).

Fairless, B. J.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Fateley, J. H.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Fateley, W. G.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Flaud, J. M.

Galle, B.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

Gamache, R. R.

Gay, B. W.

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

Goering, H.

R. Haus, H. Goering, “Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse” (Heinrich-Hertz Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, 1991).

Goldman, A.

Gurka, D. F.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Hammaker, R. M.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, N. W. Wong, J. Bragin, “A long path infrared study of Los Angeles smog,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 969–981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

Haus, R.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, D. Wehner, H. Mosebach, “Modelling of radiative transfer for FTIR remote sensing of smoke stack emissions,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper IU-9B.05.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, H. Bittner, H. Mosebach, “Remote sensing of air pollution by mobile Fourier transform spectroscopy: modeling and first results of measurements,” in Proceedings on Optical Remote Sensing and Application to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problems (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper SP-81.

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

R. Haus, H. Goering, “Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse” (Heinrich-Hertz Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, 1991).

Hayden, A. F.

Herget, W. F.

W. F. Herget, “Remote and cross-stack measurement of stack gas concentrations using a mobile FT–IR system,” Appl. Opt. 21, 635–641 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Herget, “Analysis of gaseous air pollutions using a mobile FTIR system,” Am. Environ. Lab. 14, 72–78 (1982).

W. F. Herget, J. D. Brasher, “Remote measurement of gaseous pollutant concentrations using a mobile Fourier transform interferometer system,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3404–3420 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holloway, T.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Hudson, J. L.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Husson, N.

Jaacks, R. C.

Jarvis, J. M.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Kagann, R. H.

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, “A review of open path FTIR techniques in monitoring air toxics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-13A.08.

Klein, V.

K. Weber, V. Klein, C. Werner, “Remote sensing techniques for gaseous air pollutants in the troposphere: recent developments and applications in Germany,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-9C.04.

Kloo, H.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

Lane, D. D.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Low, M. J. D.

M. J. D. Low, F. K. Clancy, “Remote sensing and characterization of stack gases by infrared spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 1, 73–74 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maclaren, S.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

Marotz, G. A.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

McClenny, W. A.

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mellqvist, J.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

Mosebach, H.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, D. Wehner, H. Mosebach, “Modelling of radiative transfer for FTIR remote sensing of smoke stack emissions,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper IU-9B.05.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, H. Bittner, H. Mosebach, “Remote sensing of air pollution by mobile Fourier transform spectroscopy: modeling and first results of measurements,” in Proceedings on Optical Remote Sensing and Application to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problems (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper SP-81.

H. Bittner, M. Erhard, I. Neureither, H. Mosebach, H. Rippel, “The K300 Fourier transform spectrometer: environmental applications of the double pendulum interferometer,” in Eighth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, H. M. Heise, E. H Korte, H. W. Siesler, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1575, 186–188 (1992).

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Neureither, I.

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

H. Bittner, M. Erhard, I. Neureither, H. Mosebach, H. Rippel, “The K300 Fourier transform spectrometer: environmental applications of the double pendulum interferometer,” in Eighth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, H. M. Heise, E. H Korte, H. W. Siesler, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1575, 186–188 (1992).

Patterson, R. K.

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

Paukstelis, J. V.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Pickett, H. M.

Pitts, J. N.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Poynter, R. L.

Reed, R. A.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. Reed, “Atmospheric background and smoke stack measurements and modeling in the 3.8–5.5-μm region,” in Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, R. C. Sepucha, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.142, 9–15 (1978).

Rinsland, C. P.

Rippel, H.

R. C. Jaacks, H. Rippel, “Double pendulum Michelson interferometer with extended spectral resolution,” Appl. Opt. 28, 29–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Bittner, M. Erhard, I. Neureither, H. Mosebach, H. Rippel, “The K300 Fourier transform spectrometer: environmental applications of the double pendulum interferometer,” in Eighth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, H. M. Heise, E. H Korte, H. W. Siesler, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1575, 186–188 (1992).

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Rothman, L. S.

Russwurm, G. M.

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, K.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, D. Wehner, H. Mosebach, “Modelling of radiative transfer for FTIR remote sensing of smoke stack emissions,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper IU-9B.05.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, H. Bittner, H. Mosebach, “Remote sensing of air pollution by mobile Fourier transform spectroscopy: modeling and first results of measurements,” in Proceedings on Optical Remote Sensing and Application to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problems (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper SP-81.

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Schulz-Spahr, Y.

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Selby, J. E. A.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. Reed, “Atmospheric background and smoke stack measurements and modeling in the 3.8–5.5-μm region,” in Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, R. C. Sepucha, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.142, 9–15 (1978).

Simpson, O. A.

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, “A review of open path FTIR techniques in monitoring air toxics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-13A.08.

Smith, M. A. H.

Spartz, M. L.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Svedberg, U.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

Telfair, W. B.

Thomas, M.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Toth, R. A.

Tuazon, E. C.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wallington, T. J.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. Weber, V. Klein, C. Werner, “Remote sensing techniques for gaseous air pollutants in the troposphere: recent developments and applications in Germany,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-9C.04.

Wehner, D.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, H. Bittner, H. Mosebach, “Remote sensing of air pollution by mobile Fourier transform spectroscopy: modeling and first results of measurements,” in Proceedings on Optical Remote Sensing and Application to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problems (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper SP-81.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, D. Wehner, H. Mosebach, “Modelling of radiative transfer for FTIR remote sensing of smoke stack emissions,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper IU-9B.05.

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

Werner, C.

K. Weber, V. Klein, C. Werner, “Remote sensing techniques for gaseous air pollutants in the troposphere: recent developments and applications in Germany,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-9C.04.

Whitcraft, W. K.

W. K. Whitcraft, K. N. Wood, “Use of remote sensing to measure wastewater treatment plant emission,” in Proceedings of the 83rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.4.

White, J. S.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Wilson, W. E.

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

Winer, A. M.

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Witkowski, M. R.

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Wong, N. W.

P. L. Hanst, N. W. Wong, J. Bragin, “A long path infrared study of Los Angeles smog,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 969–981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wood, K. N.

W. K. Whitcraft, K. N. Wood, “Use of remote sensing to measure wastewater treatment plant emission,” in Proceedings of the 83rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.4.

Am. Environ. Lab. (2)

W. F. Herget, “Analysis of gaseous air pollutions using a mobile FTIR system,” Am. Environ. Lab. 14, 72–78 (1982).

M. L. Spartz, M. R. Witkowski, J. H. Fateley, J. M. Jarvis, J. S. White, J. V. Paukstelis, R. M. Hammaker, W. G. Fateley, R.E. Carter, M. Thomas, D. D. Lane, G. A. Marotz, B. J. Fairless, T. Holloway, J. L. Hudson, D. F. Gurka, “Evaluation of a mobile FT-IR system for rapid VOC determination, Part 1: preliminary qualitative and quantitative calibration results,” Am. Environ. Lab. 11, 15–23 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Environ. (2)

P. L. Hanst, N. W. Wong, J. Bragin, “A long path infrared study of Los Angeles smog,” Atmos. Environ. 16, 969–981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Biermann, E. C. Tuazon, A. M. Winer, T. J. Wallington, J. N. Pitts, “Simultaneous absolute measurements of gaseous nitrogen species in urban ambient air by long path-length infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 1545–1554 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. J. D. Low, F. K. Clancy, “Remote sensing and characterization of stack gases by infrared spectroscopy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 1, 73–74 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

G. M. Russwurm, R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, W. A. McClenny, W. F. Herget, “Long-path FTIR measurements of volatile organic compounds in an industrial setting,” J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 41, 1062–1074 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

R. H. Kagann, O. A. Simpson, “A review of open path FTIR techniques in monitoring air toxics,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-13A.08.

W. K. Whitcraft, K. N. Wood, “Use of remote sensing to measure wastewater treatment plant emission,” in Proceedings of the 83rd Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), paper 90-86.4.

H. Axelsson, S. Maclaren, B. Galle, J. Mellqvist, H. Kloo, U. Svedberg, “Development of a long path Fourier transform infrared (LP-FTIR) instrument for measurements of diffuse VOC emissions from the automobile industry,” in Monitoring Toxic Chemicals and Biomarkers, K. Cammann, T. Vo-Dinh, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1716, 128–139(1992).

K. Weber, V. Klein, C. Werner, “Remote sensing techniques for gaseous air pollutants in the troposphere: recent developments and applications in Germany,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), paper IU-9C.04.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, D. Wehner, H. Mosebach, “Modelling of radiative transfer for FTIR remote sensing of smoke stack emissions,” in Proceedings of the Ninth World Clean Air Congress (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper IU-9B.05.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, H. Bittner, H. Mosebach, “Remote sensing of air pollution by mobile Fourier transform spectroscopy: modeling and first results of measurements,” in Proceedings on Optical Remote Sensing and Application to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problems (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992) paper SP-81.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. Reed, “Atmospheric background and smoke stack measurements and modeling in the 3.8–5.5-μm region,” in Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, R. C. Sepucha, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.142, 9–15 (1978).

P. L. Hanst, W. E. Wilson, R. K. Patterson, B. W. Gay, L. W. Chaney, C. S. Burton, “A spectroscopic study of California smog,” U.S. EPA publication 650/4-75-006 (Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1975).

H. Bittner, M. Erhard, I. Neureither, H. Mosebach, H. Rippel, “The K300 Fourier transform spectrometer: environmental applications of the double pendulum interferometer,” in Eighth International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, H. M. Heise, E. H Korte, H. W. Siesler, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1575, 186–188 (1992).

H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, Y. Schulz-Spahr, I. Neureither, H. Bittner, H. Rippel, K. Schäfer, D. Wehner, R. Haus, “Remote sensing of smoke stack emissions using a mobile environmental laboratory,” in Industrial, Municipal, and Medical Waste Incineration Diagnostics and Control, J. J. Santoleri, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1717, 149–158 (1993).

R. Haus, H. Goering, “Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse” (Heinrich-Hertz Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, 1991).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated single-gas plume radiances in the CO region for CO (solid curve), H2O (pluses), and N2O (diamonds).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of measured CO2 spectra and plume temperatures (°C): stack A on 10 November 1992 (142 °C, solid curve), stack B on 9 November 1992 (100 °C, pluses), stack C on 3 November 1992 (140 °C, diamonds), stack D on 6 November 1992 (88 °C, triangles), and stack E on 16 November 1992 (152 °C, crosses).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of measured NO spectra and content for different smoke stacks: stack A (solid curve) on 10 November 1992 with 82 mg/m3, stack B (pluses) on 9 November 1992 with 612 mg/m3, stack C (diamonds) on 3 November 1992 with 56 mg/m3, and stack D (triangles) on 6 November 1992 with 304 mg/m3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of simulated (solid curve) and measured (pluses) N2O spectra (least-squares fitted) for si tack A on 10 November 1992. The N2O concentration was 76 mg/3. The H2O (diamonds) and CO (triangles) lines are indicate

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diurnal variations in CO (lower curves) and NO (upper measurements over a 7-h period. K300 measurements of curves) CO (squares) and NO (diamonds) compared with IS measurements of CO (lower solid curve) and NO (upper solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of simulated (solid curve) and measured (pluses) The CH4 concentration CH4 spectra (least-square fitted). was 1.75 ppm. The H2O structures (triangles) and source radiance (diamonds) are indicated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diurnal variations of CO ambient-air concentration for 3 different months: measurements were made on 29 August 1992 from 1000–1700 h (squares), on 27 October 1992 from 1000–1430 h (pluses), and on 10 December 1992 from 1400–2200 h (diamonds).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of FTIS and different IS measurements of the NO concentration at a crossroads during a 2-h period. Measurements were made with the K300 (solid curve) and IS sensors located upwind (pluses) and downwind (diamonds) from the crossroads.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of measured and calculated CH4 spectra for clean air (upper curves) and air above an old garbage deposit (lower curves). The source radiance (diamonds) is also shown.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Technical Data for the K300 Interferometer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimal Spectral Regions and Interferences for the Detection of Molecules in the Emission (E) and Absorption (A) Configurations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of FTIS K300 and IS Measurement for Different Power-Plant Smoke Stacks.a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of FTIS K300 and In Situ (IS) Measurements of Ambient Air

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I Δ ν ( s 0 ) = ɛ B Δ ν ( T GB ) τ Δ ν ( s 0 , s GB ) ,
τ Δ ν ( L ) = { Δ ν i = 1 N exp [ - k i ( ν ) n i L ] d v } * exp [ - k a ( Δ ν ) n a L ] .
I = I b τ p τ f + I p τ f + I f .
I p = B ( T p ) ( 1 - τ p ) ,
I D = ( 1 - τ p ) ( B p τ f + I f ) - ( 1 - τ p ) I OS ,
I D = { ( 1 - τ p ) [ B ( T p ) τ f + B f ( 1 - τ f ) ] } × [ 1 + ( 1 - τ p ) ( M D / M OS ) - 1 ] - 1 = M D .

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