Abstract

The nitrogen Raman depolarization ratio is measured with a lidar. The measurements show how a lidar profile of cloud parameters is affected by multiple scattering.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Multiple scattering in atmospheric clouds: lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1990–1995 (1976)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. M.R. Platt, “Lidar observations of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sassen, R. L. Petrilla, “Lidar depolarization from multiple scattering in marine stratus clouds,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1450–1459 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. J. Allen, C. M. R. Piatt, “Lidar for multiple backscattering and depolarization observations,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3193–3199 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. R. Bissonnette, D. L. Hutt, “Multiple scattering lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5045–5046 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Werner, P. Hörmann, H.-G. Dahn, H. Hermann, “Technical problems with respect to the separation of single and multiple scattering by a monostatic lidar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Multiple Scattering Experiments, P. Bruscaglioni, ed. (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Comitato Nazionale per le Scienze, Florence, Italy, 1990), pp. 147–174.
  7. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.
  11. U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of multiple scattering effects with a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick, Ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 455–458.
  12. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. Wandinger, “Theoretische und experimentelle Studien zur Messung stratosphärischen Aerosols sowie zum Einfluss der Mehrfachstreuung auf Wolkenmessungen mit einem Polarisations-Raman-Lidar,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1994).
  14. Y. Takano, K. Jayaweera, “Scattering phase matrix for hexagonal ice crystals computed from ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3254–3263 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1977 (2)

R. J. Allen, C. M. R. Piatt, “Lidar for multiple backscattering and depolarization observations,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3193–3199 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M.R. Platt, “Lidar observations of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Allen, R. J.

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of multiple scattering effects with a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick, Ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 455–458.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Bösenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

Dahn, H.-G.

C. Werner, P. Hörmann, H.-G. Dahn, H. Hermann, “Technical problems with respect to the separation of single and multiple scattering by a monostatic lidar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Multiple Scattering Experiments, P. Bruscaglioni, ed. (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Comitato Nazionale per le Scienze, Florence, Italy, 1990), pp. 147–174.

Elouragini, S.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P. H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Hermann, H.

C. Werner, P. Hörmann, H.-G. Dahn, H. Hermann, “Technical problems with respect to the separation of single and multiple scattering by a monostatic lidar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Multiple Scattering Experiments, P. Bruscaglioni, ed. (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Comitato Nazionale per le Scienze, Florence, Italy, 1990), pp. 147–174.

Hörmann, P.

C. Werner, P. Hörmann, H.-G. Dahn, H. Hermann, “Technical problems with respect to the separation of single and multiple scattering by a monostatic lidar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Multiple Scattering Experiments, P. Bruscaglioni, ed. (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Comitato Nazionale per le Scienze, Florence, Italy, 1990), pp. 147–174.

Hutt, D. L.

Jayaweera, K.

Klapheck, K. H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Linné, H.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Menenger, L.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of multiple scattering effects with a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick, Ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 455–458.

C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.

Pal, S. R.

Petrilla, R. L.

Piatt, C. M. R.

Platt, C. M.R.

C. M.R. Platt, “Lidar observations of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassen, K.

Schulze, C.

C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.

Senff, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Thro, P.-Y.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.

U. Wandinger, “Theoretische und experimentelle Studien zur Messung stratosphärischen Aerosols sowie zum Einfluss der Mehrfachstreuung auf Wolkenmessungen mit einem Polarisations-Raman-Lidar,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1994).

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of multiple scattering effects with a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick, Ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 455–458.

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of multiple scattering effects with a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick, Ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 455–458.

Werner, C.

C. Werner, P. Hörmann, H.-G. Dahn, H. Hermann, “Technical problems with respect to the separation of single and multiple scattering by a monostatic lidar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Multiple Scattering Experiments, P. Bruscaglioni, ed. (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Comitato Nazionale per le Scienze, Florence, Italy, 1990), pp. 147–174.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

C. M.R. Platt, “Lidar observations of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339–345 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. Brogniez, S. Elouragini, P. H. Flamant, K. H. Klapheck, H. Linné, L. Menenger, W. Michaelis, M. Riebesell, C. Senff, P.-Y. Thro, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, “Lidar network observation of cirrus morphological and scattering properties during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989: the 18 October 1989 case study and statistical analysis,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 32, 1608–1622 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

U. Wandinger, “Theoretische und experimentelle Studien zur Messung stratosphärischen Aerosols sowie zum Einfluss der Mehrfachstreuung auf Wolkenmessungen mit einem Polarisations-Raman-Lidar,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1994).

C. Schulze, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Verification measurement of a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 567–570.

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Measurement of multiple scattering effects with a polarization Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, M. P. McCormick, Ed., NASA Conf. Pub. 3158, part 2 (NASA, Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 455–458.

C. Werner, P. Hörmann, H.-G. Dahn, H. Hermann, “Technical problems with respect to the separation of single and multiple scattering by a monostatic lidar,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Multiple Scattering Experiments, P. Bruscaglioni, ed. (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Comitato Nazionale per le Scienze, Florence, Italy, 1990), pp. 147–174.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Particle backscatter coefficient (solid curve) and optical depth (dotted curve) and (b) elastic (dashed curve) and Raman depolarization ratio (solid curve) measured in a cirrostratus layer with a polarization Raman lidar. For the particle backscatter coefficient and the elastic depolarization ratio, the signal-smoothing length is 120 m; in the case of the Raman depolarization ratio it is 600 m. Calculation step width is 60 m. The error bars indicate the statistical error from signal noise.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P λ R = P λ R s + P λ R ms ,
P λ R = P λ R s + P λ R ms ,
δ λ R = P λ R P λ R = P λ R s + P λ R ms P λ R s + P λ R ms .
δ λ R s = P λ R s P λ R s = 0.094 ,

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