Abstract

Spectrally resolved visible and infrared images of marine stratus clouds were acquired from the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft during the 1987 First International Cloud Climatology Program Regional Experiment. The images were obtained by cross-track scanning radiometers. Data images at near-infrared wavelengths show frequent and readily apparent brightness features that are due to glory single scattering. The observations and subsequent analysis by radiative transfer calculations show that the glory is a significant feature of near-infrared solar reflectance from water clouds. Glory observations and calculations based on in-cloud microphysics measurements agree well. The most dramatic difference from the visible glory is that the scattering angles are significantly larger in the near infrared. The glory is also apparently more distinct in the near infrared than in the visible, as scattering size parameters are in a range that effectively produces a glory feature, and also there is less obscuration by multiple-scattering reflectance because of absorption of radiation by droplets in the near infrared. For both the visible and the near infrared, the principal factors that wash out the glory are dispersion and, to a lesser degree, the effective radius of the cloud droplet-size distribution. The obscuration by multiple scattering in optically thick clouds is secondary. Rather than being a novelty, glory observations would be an accurate and unambiguous technique to sense the droplet size of water clouds remotely.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Theory of the glory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279–1282 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Spinhirne, T. Nakajima, “Observation and analysis for the bi-directional reflectance of stratus clouds at near-infrared wavelengths,” in Preprint Volume of the Symposium on the Role of Clouds in Climate (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 296.
  3. R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. A. Albrecht, D. A. Randall, S. Nicholls, “Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 618–626 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 40, 51–69 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Nicholls, “The dynamics of stratocumulus: aircraft observations and comparisons with a mixed layer model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 110, 783–820 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. F. Radke, J. A. Coakley, M. D. King, “Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds,” Science 246, 1146–1149 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Rawlins, J. S. Foot, “Remotely sensed measurements of stratocumulus properties during FIRE using the C130 aircraft multichannel radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2488–2503 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. L. Stephens, C. M. R. Platt, “Aircraft observations of the radiative and microphysical properties of stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 26, 1243–1269 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (1)

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Rawlins, J. S. Foot, “Remotely sensed measurements of stratocumulus properties during FIRE using the C130 aircraft multichannel radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2488–2503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. F. Radke, J. A. Coakley, M. D. King, “Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds,” Science 246, 1146–1149 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

B. A. Albrecht, D. A. Randall, S. Nicholls, “Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 618–626 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. L. Stephens, C. M. R. Platt, “Aircraft observations of the radiative and microphysical properties of stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 26, 1243–1269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. Nicholls, “The dynamics of stratocumulus: aircraft observations and comparisons with a mixed layer model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 110, 783–820 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Theory of the glory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279–1282 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, B. A.

B. A. Albrecht, D. A. Randall, S. Nicholls, “Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 618–626 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blaine, L. R.

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Clem, T. D.

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

L. F. Radke, J. A. Coakley, M. D. King, “Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds,” Science 246, 1146–1149 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curran, R. S.

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Foot, J. S.

F. Rawlins, J. S. Foot, “Remotely sensed measurements of stratocumulus properties during FIRE using the C130 aircraft multichannel radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2488–2503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khare, V.

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Theory of the glory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279–1282 (1977).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Radke, J. A. Coakley, M. D. King, “Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds,” Science 246, 1146–1149 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyle, H. L.

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, T. Nakajima, “Observation and analysis for the bi-directional reflectance of stratus clouds at near-infrared wavelengths,” in Preprint Volume of the Symposium on the Role of Clouds in Climate (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 296.

Nicholls, S.

B. A. Albrecht, D. A. Randall, S. Nicholls, “Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 618–626 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Nicholls, “The dynamics of stratocumulus: aircraft observations and comparisons with a mixed layer model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 110, 783–820 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, H. M.

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Theory of the glory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279–1282 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

G. L. Stephens, C. M. R. Platt, “Aircraft observations of the radiative and microphysical properties of stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 26, 1243–1269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Radke, L. F.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Radke, J. A. Coakley, M. D. King, “Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds,” Science 246, 1146–1149 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randall, D. A.

B. A. Albrecht, D. A. Randall, S. Nicholls, “Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 618–626 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rawlins, F.

F. Rawlins, J. S. Foot, “Remotely sensed measurements of stratocumulus properties during FIRE using the C130 aircraft multichannel radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2488–2503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J.

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, T. Nakajima, “Observation and analysis for the bi-directional reflectance of stratus clouds at near-infrared wavelengths,” in Preprint Volume of the Symposium on the Role of Clouds in Climate (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 296.

Stephens, G. L.

G. L. Stephens, C. M. R. Platt, “Aircraft observations of the radiative and microphysical properties of stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 26, 1243–1269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

B. A. Albrecht, D. A. Randall, S. Nicholls, “Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 69, 618–626 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (4)

J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, “The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. Rawlins, J. S. Foot, “Remotely sensed measurements of stratocumulus properties during FIRE using the C130 aircraft multichannel radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 2488–2503 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. (1)

G. L. Stephens, C. M. R. Platt, “Aircraft observations of the radiative and microphysical properties of stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 26, 1243–1269 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev. (1)

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, “Theory of the glory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279–1282 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

S. Nicholls, “The dynamics of stratocumulus: aircraft observations and comparisons with a mixed layer model,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 110, 783–820 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. S. Curran, H. L. Kyle, L. R. Blaine, J. Smith, T. D. Clem, “Multichannel scanning radiometer for remote sensing of cloud physical parameters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1546–1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. F. Radke, J. A. Coakley, M. D. King, “Direct and remote sensing observations of the effects of ships on clouds,” Science 246, 1146–1149 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Spinhirne, T. Nakajima, “Observation and analysis for the bi-directional reflectance of stratus clouds at near-infrared wavelengths,” in Preprint Volume of the Symposium on the Role of Clouds in Climate (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1989), p. 296.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of an area of marine stratus clouds that were obtained by visible and infrared cross-track scanning radiometers on the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The data were obtained on 29 June 1987 in an area southwest of San Diego, Calif. The beginning and the ending times for the images are indicated in the upper and the lower left-hand sides, respectively; distances along the flight path are indicated on the right-hand side. The area of cloud represented by the image would be approximately 36 km cross track and 114 km along the track. The along-track direction is from top to bottom in the images. The wavelengths of the images are (a) 3.74 μm, b) 0.74 μm, and c) 2.16 μm. The linear brightness features that are seen in the near-infrared images are identified here as resulting from glory single scattering. The images are presented with increased contrast in order to bring out reflectance variations. When the images were acquired the ER-2 aircraft heading was almost directly toward the solar azimuth position. The solar zenith angle at the time of the measurement was 8°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry for cloud scattering and the aircraft cross-track radiometer that results in the appearance of the glory scattering as linear brightness features in the radiometer images. The circular glory scattering pattern moves along with the aircraft. The dashed line represents a scan track of the radiometer, and η is the scanner zenith view angle. The angle 180°-ψ is referred to here as the backscattering angle, where ψ is the single-scattering angle of solar radiation from the cloud to the radiometer. The solar azimuth and zenith angles are designated as α and θ, respectively, and the aircraft heading as ϕ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity of reflected solar radiation as a function of the solar backscattering angle 180°-ψ for the 29 June marine stratus observations. The curves are the along-track average of the first one-third of the data shown in Fig. 1. For each wavelength the values for the positive and the negative zenith angles of the radiometer scans are shown as separate curves. The beginning of the curves at approximately 8° is the minimum observed scattering angle that results from the scans not lying in the solar plane. The difference in the two curves is a result of inhomogeneity of the cloud scene. The difference in cloud optical properties at 3.74 and 2.16 μm gives rise to a difference in the influence of the cloud inhomogeneity. Also the scattering at 3.74 μm results in a secondary single-scattering peak at ∼29°. The secondary peak is not found for 2.16 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral images of a marine stratus cloud layer near San Nicholas Island, Calif., that were acquired on 11 July 1987. The ER-2 aircraft flight track was perpendicular to the solar plane, and the solar zenith angle was 19°. Linear brightness features from the glory are found for both the near-infrared and the visible-wavelength data. On the left-hand side of the images, sun glint can be seen through breaks in the cloud deck.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3.74-μm radiance as a function of the backscatter angle that corresponds to the Fig. 4 images. Shown separately are the along-track average of the first four and last four minutes of the data in Fig. 4. For each time period the result for the positive and the negative zenith observation angles are plotted individually.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

As in Fig. 5 for three additional wavelengths. The curves are for the average of data from the last half of the flight line of Fig. 4. Only results from the negative portion of the zenith observation angles are shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Model calculation of the pattern of reflected 3.74-μm radiation from a stratus cloud shown as a function of zenith observation angles. The calculation assumes a solar zenith angle of 8° and that the observation azimuth is perpendicular to the solar plane. The vertical liquid-water path is held constant, and the optical thickness is varied as necessary for each effective droplet radius. The vertical dashed lines correspond to the positions of the maxima of the glory observed for the 29 June data in Fig. 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical profile of the effective radius of the droplet-size distributions on 29 June 1987 from in-cloud observations. The measurements are from a Forward Single Scattering Probe on the British Meteorological Office C-130 aircraft. The data points are averages along flight lines that correspond to the ER-2 track of the radiometer data in Fig. 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

As in Fig. 7 but for the 0.74-μm wavelength.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effect of the dispersion of the droplet-size distribution on the intensity of the glory pattern for the wavelength and the geometry of Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Black-and-white photograph of cloud glory made from the ER-2. The picture corresponds to the data of Fig. 4. The central cloud gap seen here is at approximately a quarter of the distance down from the top of Fig. 4. Camera images were acquired for all the ER-2 flights, but this is only one of a few frames that captured a glory feature. The glory could not be seen in the pictures of the thicker clouds that directly followed this image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation of the backscattering angle calculated for the glory diffraction peak as a function of the effective radius of a cloud droplet-size distribution for three wavelengths.

Equations (3)

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cos ψ = sin η sin θ sin ( α ϕ ) cos θ cos η .
d S d ln r = 1 ( 2 π σ ) 1 / 2 exp 1 2 ( ln r ln r 2 ) 2 σ ,
r 0 = r 2 exp ( σ 2 / 2 ) ,

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