Abstract

The use of double refraction in cascaded slabs of birefringent media for generating arrays of beams or spots is described. Arrays containing 2nbeams are obtained for each incident beam by use of n cascaded slabs. The density, redundancy, and coherence of existing beam arrays can be modified with this technique. Input beams with spatially nonuniform amplitudes may be used, and both efficiency and array uniformity can exceed 95%. This approach is also useful for optical interconnection and can produce many patterns of beam location and polarization. Interconnects including compact split-and-shifts can be realized, and reconfigurable weights or patterns are also possible. The low dispersion of many birefringent materials makes this technique useful for broad-spectrum or wavelength multiplexed arrays. Trade-offs in the implementation are discussed, and experiments demonstrating the technique are presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. J. Murdocca, “Digital optical computing architecture based on regular free-space interconnects,” in Digital Optical Computing, R. A. Athale, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.CR35, 169–189 (1990).
  2. M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, M. M. Downs, R. E. LaMarche, L. A. D'Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. J. Murdocca, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.
  4. S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.
  8. R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 144.
  9. W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, M. A. Habegger, T. J. Harris, H. Fleisher, “Digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1657–1667 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.
  11. K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. W. Lohmann, “What classical optics can do for the digital optical computer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1543–1549 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E.g., see J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Optical computing and related micro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5050–5052 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Jahns, “Optical implementation of the Banyan network,” Opt. Commun. 76, 321–324 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Murdocca, “Connection routing for micro-optic systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1106–1110 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Bian, K. Xu, J. Hong, “Optical perfect shuffle using Wollaston prisms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 173–174 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Shiraishi, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Experimental verification of a form-birefringent polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 211–212 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975).
  19. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  20. W. G. Driscoll, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
  21. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).
  22. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  23. A. W. Lohmann, S. O. Sinzinger, “Spatial noise reduction in array illuminators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 38.
  24. A. Nussbaum, R. A. Phillips, Contemporary Optics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).
  25. R. Weast, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1972).

1991 (5)

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Experimental verification of a form-birefringent polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 211–212 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Bian, K. Xu, J. Hong, “Optical perfect shuffle using Wollaston prisms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 173–174 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, M. M. Downs, R. E. LaMarche, L. A. D'Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. J. Murdocca, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

M. Murdocca, “Connection routing for micro-optic systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1106–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.g., see J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Optical computing and related micro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5050–5052 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, “Optical implementation of the Banyan network,” Opt. Commun. 76, 321–324 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1966 (1)

Bian, S.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975).

Brennan, T. M.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Bryan, R. P.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Craft, N. C.

D'Asaro, L. A.

Downs, M. M.

English, J. H.

Fleisher, H.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, M. A. Habegger, T. J. Harris, H. Fleisher, “Digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1657–1667 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.

Florez, L. T.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fu, W. S.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Gossard, A. C.

Habegger, M. A.

Harbison, J. P.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. J.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, M. A. Habegger, T. J. Harris, H. Fleisher, “Digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1657–1667 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Hong, J.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, “Optical implementation of the Banyan network,” Opt. Commun. 76, 321–324 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. L.

E.g., see J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Optical computing and related micro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5050–5052 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Kawai, S.

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

K. Shiraishi, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Experimental verification of a form-birefringent polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 211–212 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kosanke, K.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, M. A. Habegger, T. J. Harris, H. Fleisher, “Digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1657–1667 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.

Kulcke, W.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, M. A. Habegger, T. J. Harris, H. Fleisher, “Digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1657–1667 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.

LaMarche, R. E.

Lear, K.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E.g., see J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Optical computing and related micro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5050–5052 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, “What classical optics can do for the digital optical computer,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1543–1549 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Lohmann, S. O. Sinzinger, “Spatial noise reduction in array illuminators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 38.

Matsumoto, T.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Max, E.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, M. A. Habegger, T. J. Harris, H. Fleisher, “Digital light deflectors,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1657–1667 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.

McCall, S. L.

E.g., see J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Optical computing and related micro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5050–5052 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 144.

Murdocca, M.

Murdocca, M. J.

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, M. M. Downs, R. E. LaMarche, L. A. D'Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. J. Murdocca, “Optical digital processor using arrays of symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2287–2296 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Murdocca, “Digital optical computing architecture based on regular free-space interconnects,” in Digital Optical Computing, R. A. Athale, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.CR35, 169–189 (1990).

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nussbaum, A.

A. Nussbaum, R. A. Phillips, Contemporary Optics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).

Olbright, G. R.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Olsson, N. A.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. A.

A. Nussbaum, R. A. Phillips, Contemporary Optics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).

Poirier, G. E.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

Prise, M. E.

Sakano, T.

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Sato, T.

K. Shiraishi, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Experimental verification of a form-birefringent polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 211–212 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

E.g., see J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, J. H. English, “Optical computing and related micro-optic devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5050–5052 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Experimental verification of a form-birefringent polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 211–212 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sinzinger, S. O.

A. W. Lohmann, S. O. Sinzinger, “Spatial noise reduction in array illuminators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 38.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 144.

Weast, R.

R. Weast, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1972).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975).

Xu, K.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Shiraishi, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Experimental verification of a form-birefringent polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 211–212 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Kawai, “Free-space multistage optical interconnection networks using micro lens arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1774 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, T. Sakano, T. Matsumoto, “A rearrangeable multichannel free-space optical switch based on multistage network configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1726–1732 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Jahns, “Optical implementation of the Banyan network,” Opt. Commun. 76, 321–324 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, T. M. Brennan, K. Lear, G. E. Poirier, W. S. Fu, J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, “Surface emitting laser logic,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 247–249.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 144.

W. Kulcke, K. Kosanke, E. Max, H. Fleisher, T. J. Harris, “Convergent beam digital light deflector,” in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1965), Chap. 23.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1975).

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

W. G. Driscoll, ed., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

A. W. Lohmann, S. O. Sinzinger, “Spatial noise reduction in array illuminators,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 38.

A. Nussbaum, R. A. Phillips, Contemporary Optics for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976).

R. Weast, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1972).

M. J. Murdocca, “Digital optical computing architecture based on regular free-space interconnects,” in Digital Optical Computing, R. A. Athale, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.CR35, 169–189 (1990).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “S-SEED-based photonic switching network demonstration,” in Photonic Switching, Vol. 8 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 48–55.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Collimated beam configuration, in which a beam formed from source s and lens l1 is normally incident upon a cleavage face of calcite.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Constraints for the collimated lens configuration. The crystal thickness L must be greater than L min to avoid overlapping of neighboring spots, and L must be less than L max to limit diffractive cross talk in neighboring channels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Focused beam configuration, in which one or more converging beams are normally incident upon and focused through a cleavage face of calcite.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Orientation of cascaded crystal-slab stages.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

First-stage output patterns for crystal orientations (a) 0°, (b) 90°, (c) 180°, and (d) 270°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two output patterns for four cascaded stages with the orientation sequences shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Four possible output patterns for four cascaded crystal slabs of increasing displacements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Subarray generation: A coarse 3×4 spot array (solid dots) is transformed into a 12 × 13 array by imaging through a four-crystal cascade that is oriented as shown in Fig. 7(b). The spot density and number is increased by a factor of 16.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental configuration used to demonstrate spot array generation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CCD photographs from the configuration of Fig. 9 with stages increasing in displacement for (a) 1, (b) 2, (c) 3, (d) 4, (e) 5, and (f) 5 stages with the last stage rotated.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Saturated CCD photograph of stage 3 showing the diameter of the first null diffraction ring and the ring structure.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

CCD photographs of rectangular (nonskew) arrays with circular polarization input for (a) two stages and (b) three stages.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental configuration used to demonstrate subarray generation: ml–m4, mirrors; Cl, C2, crystals.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Subarray generation: (a) input array, (b) output array.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = L tan θ ,
L min = D tan θ .
w = λ n sin β ,
w 2 λ l n D .
L max n D 2 2 λ .
P 0 P inc sin 2 γ ,
P e P inc cos 2 γ ,

Metrics