Abstract

The Ultraviolet and Visible Imaging and Spectrographic Imaging experiment consists of five spectrographic imagers and four imagers. These nine sensors provide spectrographic and imaging capabilities from 110 to 900 nm. The spectrographic imagers share an off-axis design in which selectable slits alternate fields of view (1.00° × 0.10° or 1.00° × 0.05°) and spectral resolutions between 0.5 and 4 nm. Image planes of the spectrographic imager have a programmable spectral dimension with 68, 136, or 272 pixels across each individual spectral band, and a programmable spatial dimension with 5, 10, 20, or 40 pixels across the 1° slit length. A scan mirror sweeps the slit through a second spatial dimension to generate a 1° × 1° spectrographic image once every 5, 10, or 20 s, depending on the scan rate. The four imagers provide narrow-field (1.28° × 1.59°) and wide-field (10.5° × 13.1°) viewing. Each imager has a six-position filter wheel that selects various spectral regimes and neutral densities. The nine sensors utilize intensified CCD detectors that have an intrascene dynamic range of ~ 103 and an interscene dynamic range of ~ 105; neutral-density filters provide an additional dynamic range of ~ 1023. The detector uses an automatic gain control that permits the sensors to adjust to scenes of varying intensity. The sensors have common boresights and can operate separately, simultaneously, or synchronously. To be launched aboard the Midcourse Space Experiment spacecraft in the mid-1990’s, the ultraviolet and visible imaging and spectrographic imaging instrument will investigate a multitude of celestial, atmospheric, and point sources during its planned 4-yr life.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).
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  26. J. F. Carbary, C. I. Meng, “Limb profiles from low Earth orbit,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

1992 (5)

M. N. Ross, A. B. Christensen, C. I. Meng, J. F. Carbary, “Structure in the UV nightglow observed from low earth orbit,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 985–988 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. Knecht, R. Viereck, E. Murad, “Panchromatic spectrograph with supporting monochromatic imagers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3083–3096 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, “Application of the intensified CCD to airglow and auroral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3097–3108 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, “Climatology of polar mesospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,673–14,681 (1989).

1988 (1)

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Imaging results from dynamics Explorer I,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 249–283 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “Auroral images from space: imagery, spectroscopy, and photometry,” APL Tech. Dig. 8, 309–317 (1987).

1985 (2)

J. D. Craven, L. A. Frank, “The temporal evolution of a small auroral substorm as viewed from high altitudes with Dynamics Explorer 1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12,465–468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Solomon, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Tomographic inversion of satellite photometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3409–3418 (1985).

1984 (2)

C. I. Meng, R. E. Huffman, “Ultraviolet imaging from space of the aurora under full sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 315–318 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “The Hilat vacuum ultraviolet auroral imager,” APL Tech. Dig. 5, 131–137 (1984).

1983 (2)

D. G. Torr, R. W. Basedow, G. H. Mount, “An imaging spectrometric observatory for Spacelab,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 92, 237–291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Strickland, J. R. Jasperse, J. A. Whalen, “Dependence of auroral FUV emissions on the incident electron spectrum and neutral atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8051–8062 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

S. C. Solomon, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Tomographic inversion of satellite photometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3409–3418 (1985).

Allen, M.

R. C. Henry, J. Murthy, M. Allen, M. Corbin, L. J. Paxton, “Spectroscopy and imaging of the cosmic diffuse UV background radiation,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 61–71 (1992).

Anger, C. D.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Atreya, S. K.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Babey, S. K.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Basedow, R. W.

D. G. Torr, R. W. Basedow, G. H. Mount, “An imaging spectrometric observatory for Spacelab,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 92, 237–291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bertaux, J. L.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Blair, W. P.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, C. W.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Broadfoot, A. L.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. Knecht, R. Viereck, E. Murad, “Panchromatic spectrograph with supporting monochromatic imagers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3083–3096 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, “Application of the intensified CCD to airglow and auroral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3097–3108 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. G.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carbary, J. F.

M. N. Ross, A. B. Christensen, C. I. Meng, J. F. Carbary, “Structure in the UV nightglow observed from low earth orbit,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 985–988 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Carbary, C. I. Meng, “Limb profiles from low Earth orbit,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Christensen, A. B.

M. N. Ross, A. B. Christensen, C. I. Meng, J. F. Carbary, “Structure in the UV nightglow observed from low earth orbit,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 985–988 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Conard, S. J.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Corbin, M.

R. C. Henry, J. Murthy, M. Allen, M. Corbin, L. J. Paxton, “Spectroscopy and imaging of the cosmic diffuse UV background radiation,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 61–71 (1992).

Coughlin, T. B.

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

Craven, J. D.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Imaging results from dynamics Explorer I,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 249–283 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Craven, L. A. Frank, “The temporal evolution of a small auroral substorm as viewed from high altitudes with Dynamics Explorer 1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12,465–468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, L. J.

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

Cruetzberg, F.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dassoulas, J.

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

Davidson, A. F.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Donahue, T. M.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Durrance, S. T.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P. D.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, H. C.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fountain, G. H.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Frank, L. A.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Imaging results from dynamics Explorer I,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 249–283 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Craven, L. A. Frank, “The temporal evolution of a small auroral substorm as viewed from high altitudes with Dynamics Explorer 1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12,465–468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gary, S. A.

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Gattinger, R.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R. L.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Green, A. J.

B. B. Holland, J. C. Ray, A. J. Green, “Delta 181, the Thrusted Vector Mission,” presented at the AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1989.

Griffin, M. D.

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

M. D. Griffin, M. J. Rendine, “Delta 180/Vector Sum: the first powered space intercept,” presented at the AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1988.

Gustafsson, G.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. S.

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Harris, F. R.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. J.

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Harrison, K. L.

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Haslett, J. W.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hatfield, B.

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

Hawkins, S. E.

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Hays, P. B.

S. C. Solomon, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Tomographic inversion of satellite photometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3409–3418 (1985).

Henry, R. C.

R. C. Henry, J. Murthy, M. Allen, M. Corbin, L. J. Paxton, “Spectroscopy and imaging of the cosmic diffuse UV background radiation,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 61–71 (1992).

Heubschman, R. E.

R. E. Heubschman, C. T. Pardoe, “The Midcourse Space Experiment Spacecraft,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1992 Aerospace Design Conference, Irvine, California, February 1992.

Holberg, J. B.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Holland, B. B.

B. B. Holland, J. C. Ray, A. J. Green, “Delta 181, the Thrusted Vector Mission,” presented at the AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1989.

Huffman, R. E.

C. I. Meng, R. E. Huffman, “Ultraviolet imaging from space of the aurora under full sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 315–318 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jasperse, J. R.

D. J. Strickland, J. R. Jasperse, J. A. Whalen, “Dependence of auroral FUV emissions on the incident electron spectrum and neutral atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8051–8062 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, R. A.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

King, R. A.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Knecht, D.

Kriss, G. A.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Link, R.

D. J. Strickland, R. Link, L. J. Paxton, “Far-UV remote sensing of thermospheric composition and the solar EUV flux,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 117–131 (1992).

Llewellyn, E. J.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Long, K. S.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McConnel, J. C.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, J. C.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McEwen, D. J.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. R.

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meng, C. I.

M. N. Ross, A. B. Christensen, C. I. Meng, J. F. Carbary, “Structure in the UV nightglow observed from low earth orbit,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 985–988 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Meng, R. E. Huffman, “Ultraviolet imaging from space of the aurora under full sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 315–318 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Carbary, C. I. Meng, “Limb profiles from low Earth orbit,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

Moos, H. W.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mount, G. H.

D. G. Torr, R. W. Basedow, G. H. Mount, “An imaging spectrometric observatory for Spacelab,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 92, 237–291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murad, E.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. Knecht, R. Viereck, E. Murad, “Panchromatic spectrograph with supporting monochromatic imagers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3083–3096 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

Murphree, J. S.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, J.

R. C. Henry, J. Murthy, M. Allen, M. Corbin, L. J. Paxton, “Spectroscopy and imaging of the cosmic diffuse UV background radiation,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 61–71 (1992).

Olivero, J. J.

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, “Climatology of polar mesospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,673–14,681 (1989).

Orgorzalek, B. S.

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “Auroral images from space: imagery, spectroscopy, and photometry,” APL Tech. Dig. 8, 309–317 (1987).

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “The Hilat vacuum ultraviolet auroral imager,” APL Tech. Dig. 5, 131–137 (1984).

Pardoe, C. T.

R. E. Heubschman, C. T. Pardoe, “The Midcourse Space Experiment Spacecraft,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1992 Aerospace Design Conference, Irvine, California, February 1992.

Partridge, P. E.

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

Paxton, L. J.

D. J. Strickland, R. Link, L. J. Paxton, “Far-UV remote sensing of thermospheric composition and the solar EUV flux,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 117–131 (1992).

R. C. Henry, J. Murthy, M. Allen, M. Corbin, L. J. Paxton, “Spectroscopy and imaging of the cosmic diffuse UV background radiation,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 61–71 (1992).

Peterson, M. R.

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

Potocki, K. A.

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ray, J. C.

B. B. Holland, J. C. Ray, A. J. Green, “Delta 181, the Thrusted Vector Mission,” presented at the AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1989.

Rendine, M. J.

M. D. Griffin, M. J. Rendine, “Delta 180/Vector Sum: the first powered space intercept,” presented at the AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1988.

Richardson, E. H.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ross, M. N.

M. N. Ross, A. B. Christensen, C. I. Meng, J. F. Carbary, “Structure in the UV nightglow observed from low earth orbit,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 985–988 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rostoker, G.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, B. R.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. Knecht, R. Viereck, E. Murad, “Panchromatic spectrograph with supporting monochromatic imagers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3083–3096 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, “Application of the intensified CCD to airglow and auroral measurements,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3097–3108 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schenkel, F. W.

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “Auroral images from space: imagery, spectroscopy, and photometry,” APL Tech. Dig. 8, 309–317 (1987).

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “The Hilat vacuum ultraviolet auroral imager,” APL Tech. Dig. 5, 131–137 (1984).

Shemansky, D. E.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. R.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S. C.

S. C. Solomon, P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, “Tomographic inversion of satellite photometry,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3409–3418 (1985).

Strickland, D. J.

D. J. Strickland, J. R. Jasperse, J. A. Whalen, “Dependence of auroral FUV emissions on the incident electron spectrum and neutral atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8051–8062 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Strickland, R. Link, L. J. Paxton, “Far-UV remote sensing of thermospheric composition and the solar EUV flux,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 117–131 (1992).

Strobel, D. F.

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, “Climatology of polar mesospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,673–14,681 (1989).

Torr, D. G.

D. G. Torr, R. W. Basedow, G. H. Mount, “An imaging spectrometric observatory for Spacelab,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 92, 237–291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vallance Jones, A.

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, D.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Viereck, R.

Viereck, R. A.

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

Wallis, D. D

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Whalen, J. A.

D. J. Strickland, J. R. Jasperse, J. A. Whalen, “Dependence of auroral FUV emissions on the incident electron spectrum and neutral atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8051–8062 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Witt, G.

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

APL Tech. Dig. (3)

T. B. Coughlin, L. J. Crawford, J. Dassoulas, M. D. Griffin, P. E. Partridge, M. R. Peterson, “Strategic Defense Initiative,” APL Tech. Dig. 13, 200–217 (1992).

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “The Hilat vacuum ultraviolet auroral imager,” APL Tech. Dig. 5, 131–137 (1984).

F. W. Schenkel, B. S. Orgorzalek, “Auroral images from space: imagery, spectroscopy, and photometry,” APL Tech. Dig. 8, 309–317 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (1)

A. F. Davidson, K. S. Long, S. T. Durrance, W. P. Blair, C. W. Bowers, S. J. Conard, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, G. H. Fountain, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, H. W. Moos, K. A. Potocki, “The Hopkins ultraviolet telescope: performance and calibration during the Astro-1 Mission,” Astrophys. J. 392, 264–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

D. G. Torr, R. W. Basedow, G. H. Mount, “An imaging spectrometric observatory for Spacelab,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 92, 237–291 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eos Suppl. (1)

B. R. Sandel, A. L. Broadfoot, B. Hatfield, E. Murad, R. A. Viereck, “The Earth’s dayglow spectrum from STS-39,” Eos Suppl. 29, 360 (1991).

Geophy. Res. Lett. (1)

C. D. Anger, S. K. Babey, A. L. Broadfoot, R. G. Brown, L. L. Cogger, R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, R. A. King, D. J. McEwen, J. S. Murphree, E. H. Richardson, B. R. Sandel, K. Smith, A. Vallance Jones, “An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking spacecraft,” Geophy. Res. Lett. 14, 387–390 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

C. I. Meng, R. E. Huffman, “Ultraviolet imaging from space of the aurora under full sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 11, 315–318 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ross, A. B. Christensen, C. I. Meng, J. F. Carbary, “Structure in the UV nightglow observed from low earth orbit,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 985–988 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Craven, L. A. Frank, “The temporal evolution of a small auroral substorm as viewed from high altitudes with Dynamics Explorer 1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 12,465–468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Anger, J. S. Murphree, A. Vallance Jones, R. A. King, A. L. Broadfoot, L. L. Cogger, F. Cruetzberg, R. L. Gattinger, G. Gustafsson, F. R. Harris, J. W. Haslett, E. J. Llewellyn, J. C. McConnel, D. J. McEwen, E. H. Richardson, G. Rostoker, B. R. Sandel, G. G. Shepherd, D. Venkatesan, D. D Wallis, G. Witt, “Scientific results from the Viking ultraviolet imager: an introduction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 383–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

G. E. Thomas, J. J. Olivero, “Climatology of polar mesospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,673–14,681 (1989).

D. J. Strickland, J. R. Jasperse, J. A. Whalen, “Dependence of auroral FUV emissions on the incident electron spectrum and neutral atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8051–8062 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Broadfoot, B. R. Sandel, D. E. Shemansky, J. C. McConnell, G. R. Smith, J. B. Holberg, S. K. Atreya, T. M. Donahue, D. F. Strobel, J. L. Bertaux, “Overview of the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometry results through Jupiter encounter,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8259–8284 (1981).
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Rev. Geophys. (1)

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Imaging results from dynamics Explorer I,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 249–283 (1988).
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Space Sci. Rev. (1)

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
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Other (7)

D. J. Strickland, R. Link, L. J. Paxton, “Far-UV remote sensing of thermospheric composition and the solar EUV flux,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 117–131 (1992).

R. C. Henry, J. Murthy, M. Allen, M. Corbin, L. J. Paxton, “Spectroscopy and imaging of the cosmic diffuse UV background radiation,” in Ultraviolet Technology IV, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1764, 61–71 (1992).

R. E. Heubschman, C. T. Pardoe, “The Midcourse Space Experiment Spacecraft,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1992 Aerospace Design Conference, Irvine, California, February 1992.

M. D. Griffin, M. J. Rendine, “Delta 180/Vector Sum: the first powered space intercept,” presented at the AIAA 26th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1988.

B. B. Holland, J. C. Ray, A. J. Green, “Delta 181, the Thrusted Vector Mission,” presented at the AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–15 January 1989.

J. S. Hansen, G. H. Fountain, S. A. Gary, T. J. Harris, K. L. Harrison, S. E. Hawkins, “Ultraviolet spectrographs using linear array technology,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

J. F. Carbary, C. I. Meng, “Limb profiles from low Earth orbit,” in Ultraviolet Technology III, R. E. Huffman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng. 1158, 155–162 (1989).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the UVISI instrument. The solid lines indicate lines of communication (i.e., command, control, data), the dotted lines indicate lines of power, and the vertical dashed line indicates separation between the spacecraft (S/C) and the instrument systems. For redundancy, the instrument has two data-control systems, and each sensor has its own power converter (CONV) and SEM. The image processor has no redundancy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Location of the UVISI sensors on the spacecraft platform. All sensors are coaligned and face in the forward direction. Spacecraft apparatus such as antennas and solar panels are omitted for clarity. In the nominal spacecraft orientation, the Earth would be at the bottom of the figure and the sky would be at the top.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of a SPIM. All SPIM’s have a common design and differ only in grating and in photocathode and window materials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of how a SPIM constructs a two-dimensional image by scanning the slit through a 1° field of regard. Onboard electronics sums pixels in the focal plane to produce the combinations shown. Available space in telemetry may constrain the possible combinations of these array sizes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the two UVISI NFOV imagers. One imager operates in the middle ultraviolet (180–300 nm), and the other operates from the near ultraviolet to the far infrared (300–900 nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the IUW, which operates in the far ultraviolet (110–180 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of the IVW, which operates from the visible to the near infrared (380–900 nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Point source transmittance (pst, off-axis rejection) for the narrow- and wide-field ultraviolet imagers. The large drop-offs at ~ 9° and ~ 12° are caused by the sunshades.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of a UVISI focal plane unit. All focal plane units have the same design and differ only in window and photocathode materials. Focal plane unit electronics report 12 bits per pixel to the data-control system.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated response curves for the SPIM’s. The curves apply to the wide slit without attenuation at maximum gain and gate. The curves include photocathode quantum efficiency, window transmissivity, grating efficiency, mirror reflectance, and any filter transmission effects.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated response curves for the imagers. The response curves apply to the open filter positions of the filter wheels; the sensors operate at maximum gain and gate. The curves include photocathode quantum efficiency, window transmissivity, mirror reflectance, and any filter or lens transmission effects.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Spectrographic Imager Performance

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Table 2 Imager Performance

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Table 3 UVISI SPIM Options

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Table 4 UVISI Imager Options

Equations (4)

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E i j = C i j - D ( T ) A d G n Q f U i j τ k ,
Q f = Δ λ ɛ ( λ ) R ( λ ) d λ .
L i j = 1 Ω p Δ λ s C i j - D ( T ) A d G n R i j τ k ,
λ i = A 0 + A 1 i ,

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