Abstract

We describe techniques for making a diffractive optical element that produces a subdiffraction-limited spot size. We provide experimental verification, using a diffraction optical element that is constructed on a magneto-optic spatial light modulator.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michedtte, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 31, 403–413 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Vinas, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, M. Sypek, “Zone plates with black focal spots,” Appl. Opt. 31, 192–198 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Davis, W. V. Brandt, D. M. Cottrell, R. M. Bunch, “Spatial image differentiation using programmable binary optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4610–4614 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Davis, H. M. Schley-Seebold, D. M. Cottrell, “Anamorphic optical systems using programmable spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6185–6186 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
  6. J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).
  8. J. A. Davis, “Programmable diffractive optical elements using spatial light modulators,” in Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Applications II, U. Efron, M. D. Wand, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1911, 214–225 (1993).
  9. D. M. Cottrell, J. A. Davis, T. R. Hedman, R. A. Lilly, “Multiple imaging phase-encoding optical elements written on programmable spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2505–2509(1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).

1984 (2)

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michedtte, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Horner, P. D. Gianino, “Phase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 23, 812–816 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Anderson, R. H.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Brandt, W. V.

Bunch, R. M.

Cottrell, D. M.

Davis, J. A.

Gianino, P. D.

Hedman, T. R.

Horner, J. L.

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Kolodziejczyk, A.

Lilly, R. A.

Michedtte, A. G.

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michedtte, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Ross, W. E.

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Schley-Seebold, H. M.

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michedtte, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).

Sypek, M.

Veldkamp, W. B.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).

Vinas, B.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Opt. Acta (1)

M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michedtte, “Imaging properties of modified Fresnel zone plates,” Opt. Acta 31, 403–413 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).

W. E. Ross, D. Psaltis, R. H. Anderson, “Two-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator for signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 22, 485–490 (1983).

Other (1)

J. A. Davis, “Programmable diffractive optical elements using spatial light modulators,” in Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Applications II, U. Efron, M. D. Wand, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1911, 214–225 (1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, Formation of focused spot by a centered lens B, Formation of an offset focused spot by an offset lent C, Composite lens producing three overlapping focused spots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Individual electric fields produced by three lenses of Fig. 1C. The outer electric fields are weaker and are π rad out of phase with the central lens. Top thick curve, centered electric field; bottom thick curve, electric field shifted to the right; solid curve, electric field shifted to the left. B, Resultant intensity from Fig. 2A showing a subdiffraction-limited spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative Fresnel lens patterns corresponding to A, a spherical converging lens; B, a centered lens with two weaker lenses each offset by 1 pixel and having a relative strength of 0.53; C, a centered lens with two weaker lenses each offset by 1 pixel and having a relative strength of 0.57.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental trace of the intensity of a focused spot by use of A, a spherical converging lens of Fig. 3A; B, a composite lens of Fig. 3B; C, a composite lens of Fig. 3C.

Equations (3)

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d = 1.22 f λ D ,
L ( x ) = A exp [ i k ( x 2 + y 2 2 f ) ] - B exp { i k [ ( x - a ) 2 + y 2 2 f ] } - B exp { i k [ ( x + a ) 2 + y 2 2 f ] } ,
L ˜ ( x ) = L ( x ) L ( x ) .

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