Abstract

Antiglare layers for display devices feature a rough surface structure that scatters the incident light and thereby reduces the specular reflectivity of the screen. The same structure will, however, also diffuse part of the light from the phosphor layer, resulting in a degradation of image quality. The microstructure, light-scattering properties, and effects on image contrast and resolution of some relevant antiglare structures are examined. A model based on scalar diffraction theory that relates the various optical properties to the surface microstructure is presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kawamura, T. Kawamura, K. Kobara, Y. Endo, “Image display having antistatic film with transparent and electroconductive properties and process for processing same,” U.S. patent4,945,282 (8December1988).
  2. J. M. Bennet, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  3. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 4, pp. 57–76.
  4. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 3, p. 74.
  5. A. L. G. van den Eeden, A. A. S. Sluyterman, “Colour monitor tubes with magnetic-field suppression and antistatic coating,” Electron. Components Appl. 10, 48–52 (1990).
  6. A. J. den Boef, “Scanning force microscopy using optical interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 1991).
  7. P. Beckmann, “Scattering of light by rough surfaces,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6, pp. 53–69.
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. L. G. van den Eeden, A. A. S. Sluyterman, “Colour monitor tubes with magnetic-field suppression and antistatic coating,” Electron. Components Appl. 10, 48–52 (1990).

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, “Scattering of light by rough surfaces,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6, pp. 53–69.
[CrossRef]

Bennet, J. M.

J. M. Bennet, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

den Boef, A. J.

A. J. den Boef, “Scanning force microscopy using optical interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 1991).

Endo, Y.

H. Kawamura, T. Kawamura, K. Kobara, Y. Endo, “Image display having antistatic film with transparent and electroconductive properties and process for processing same,” U.S. patent4,945,282 (8December1988).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 4, pp. 57–76.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 3, p. 74.

Kawamura, H.

H. Kawamura, T. Kawamura, K. Kobara, Y. Endo, “Image display having antistatic film with transparent and electroconductive properties and process for processing same,” U.S. patent4,945,282 (8December1988).

Kawamura, T.

H. Kawamura, T. Kawamura, K. Kobara, Y. Endo, “Image display having antistatic film with transparent and electroconductive properties and process for processing same,” U.S. patent4,945,282 (8December1988).

Kobara, K.

H. Kawamura, T. Kawamura, K. Kobara, Y. Endo, “Image display having antistatic film with transparent and electroconductive properties and process for processing same,” U.S. patent4,945,282 (8December1988).

Mattson, L.

J. M. Bennet, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Sluyterman, A. A. S.

A. L. G. van den Eeden, A. A. S. Sluyterman, “Colour monitor tubes with magnetic-field suppression and antistatic coating,” Electron. Components Appl. 10, 48–52 (1990).

van den Eeden, A. L. G.

A. L. G. van den Eeden, A. A. S. Sluyterman, “Colour monitor tubes with magnetic-field suppression and antistatic coating,” Electron. Components Appl. 10, 48–52 (1990).

Electron. Components Appl. (1)

A. L. G. van den Eeden, A. A. S. Sluyterman, “Colour monitor tubes with magnetic-field suppression and antistatic coating,” Electron. Components Appl. 10, 48–52 (1990).

Other (6)

A. J. den Boef, “Scanning force microscopy using optical interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 1991).

P. Beckmann, “Scattering of light by rough surfaces,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Vol. 6, pp. 53–69.
[CrossRef]

H. Kawamura, T. Kawamura, K. Kobara, Y. Endo, “Image display having antistatic film with transparent and electroconductive properties and process for processing same,” U.S. patent4,945,282 (8December1988).

J. M. Bennet, L. Mattson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), Chap. 4, pp. 57–76.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 3, p. 74.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the relationships among the microstructure of an antiglare layer and various optical properties.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaging geometry in the presence of an antiglare structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SFM image of (top) an etched antiglare surface and (bottom) a Philips antiglare structure, both with a gloss value of 69. The imaged area is 100 μm × 100 μm. The vertical excursions are not to scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Histogram of the height distribution of A, the etched surface and two Philips Antiglare surfaces with gloss values of B, 83, and C, 43. The average height is set to zero in A–C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally obtained ARS in reflection (at 514 nm) of several screens: curve a, polished screen glass; curve b, coated with Philips Antiglare (gloss value of 69); curve c, etched (gloss value of 69). The horizontal markers a–c in the peak indicate the level of specular reflectivity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated (dotted curves) and experimentally obtained (line traces) ARS in transmission (at 514 nm) of A, the etched structure, and two Philips Antiglare structures on glass, with gloss values of B, 69, and C, 43.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Camera image of a grating with a period of 0.9 mm, obtained with a narrow-band interference filter at 520 nm, (top) without an antiglare layer, and (bottom) through a Philips Antiglare layer with gloss value 43 at da = 8 mm. The irradiance is given as a function of the diode number (diode nr.) of the line camera.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

MTF curves of A, the etched structure, and of two Philips Antiglare structures with gloss values of B, 69, and C, 43. The squares connected by the solid curves represent measured data (at 520 nm); the dotted and dashed curves are computed from the microstructure and the ARS (at 514 nm), respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top, near-field autocorrelation, and bottom, MTF computed from a 100 × 100 μm2 SFM scan of a Philips Antiglare sample with gloss value 43. Solid curves, 450 nm; dotted curves, 615 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of the Samples Used

Equations (28)

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U a ( ρ ) = U a r ( ρ ) , with r ( ρ ) = exp ( i 4 π z ( ρ ) λ ) ,
U a ( ρ ) = U a t ( ρ ) , with t ( ρ ) = exp ( i 2 π ( n 1 ) z ( ρ ) λ ) ,
U s ( s ) = U a ( ρ ) exp ( 2 π i λ ρ · s ) d 2 ρ ,
I s ( s ) = R c ( ρ τ ) exp ( 2 π i λ s · ρ τ ) d 2 ρ τ ,
R c ( ρ τ ) = U a ( ρ ) U a * ( ρ + ρ τ ) .
I s ( θ ) = 2 π 0 R c ( r τ ) J 0 ( 2 π r τ sin θ / λ ) r τ d r τ ,
U a ( ρ a ) = i exp ( i k d a ) λ d a × exp [ i k 2 d a ( ρ a ρ o ) 2 ] U o ( ρ o ) d 2 ρ o ,
U a ( ρ a ) = t ( ρ a ) U a ( ρ a ) .
U ob ( ρ ob ) = i exp ( i k d a ) λ d a U a ( ρ a ) × exp [ i k 2 d a ( ρ ob ρ a ) 2 ] d 2 ρ a .
U ob ( ρ ob ) = 1 λ 2 d a 2 exp ( i k 2 d a ρ ob 2 ) U o ( ρ o ) t ( ρ a ) × exp ( i k 2 d a ρ o 2 ) exp [ 2 π i λ d a ( ρ ob ρ o ) · ρ a ] d 2 ρ o d 2 ρ a .
I ob ( ρ ob ) = U ob ( ρ ob ) U ob * ( ρ ob ) t ,
U o ( ρ o ) U o * ( ρ o ) t = κ I o ( ρ o ) δ ( ρ o ρ o ) ,
I ob ( ρ ob ) I o ( ρ o ) T c ( ρ τ ) × exp [ 2 π i λ d a ( ρ ob ρ o ) · ρ τ ] d 2 ρ o d 2 ρτ ,
T c ( ρ τ ) = t ( ρ a ) t * ( ρ a + ρ τ ) .
I ob ( ρ ob ) I o ( ρ o ) I s ( ρ ob ρ o d a ) d 2 ρ o .
I i ( ρ i ) I ob ( ρ ob ) P ( ρ l ) P ( ρ l + ρ ξ ) × exp [ 2 π i λ d i ( ρ i + M ρ ob ) · ρ ξ ] d 2 ρ l d 2 ρ ξ d 2 ρ ob ,
I i ( ρ i ) I g ( ρ ˜ o ) T c ( λ M d a ρ ˜ τ ) P A ( λ d i ρ ˜ τ ) × exp [ 2 π i ( ρ i ρ ˜ o ) · ρ ˜ τ ] d 2 ρ ˜ 0 d 2 ρ ˜ τ .
P A ( d o d a ρ τ ) = P ( ρ l ) P ( ρ l + d o d a ρ τ ) d 2 ρ l ,
ρ ˜ τ = ρ τ λ M d a , ρ ˜ o = M ρ o ,
I g ( ρ i ) = 1 M 2 I o ( ρ i M ) .
G i ( f ) = H ( f ) G g ( f ) ,
G i ( f ) = I i ( ρ i ) exp ( 2 π i f · ρ i ) d 2 ρ i , G g ( f ) = I g ( ρ ˜ o ) exp ( 2 π i f · ρ ˜ o ) d 2 ρ ˜ o .
H ( f ) = T c ( λ M d a f ) P A ( λ d i f ) .
G i 0 ( f ) = P A ( λ d i f ) G g ( f ) ,
G i ( f ) = H A ( f ) G i 0 ( f ) ,
H A ( f ) = T c ( λ M d a f ) .
H A ( f ) = exp { 2 π i ( n 1 ) λ [ z ( ρ ) z ( ρ λ M d a f ) ] } .
H A ( f ) exp { 2 π i ( n 1 ) [ M d a f · z + O ( λ M 2 d a 2 f 2 ) ] } ,

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