Abstract

Electronic holography and a swept-frequency dye laser are used with the first-arriving-light method to image an absorbing object through the flesh of a human hand. Holography with living human tissue without the use of high-peak-power lasers is made possible by the high sensitivity of the CCD camera as well as its capability for making a large number of holograms in rapid succession, thus enabling the images to be combined to produce a resultant image with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1993 (1)

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

1990 (3)

1989 (2)

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1971 (1)

Abramson, N.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved coherent and incoherent components of forward light scattering in random media,” Opt. Lett. 15, 320–332 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biological samples using picosecond optical Kerr Gate,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 97–101 (1991).

Andersson-Engels, S.

Berg, R.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

De Silversti, S.

Dilworth, D.

Duguay, M. A.

Fishkin, J.

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gerritsen, H. J.

H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).

Gratton, E.

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356(1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biological samples using picosecond optical Kerr Gate,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 97–101 (1991).

Ippen, E. P.

Jarlman, O.

Kruger, R. A.

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, “Time resolved imaging through a highly scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 30, 788–794(1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356(1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leith, E.

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

L. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biological samples using picosecond optical Kerr Gate,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 97–101 (1991).

Lopez, J.

Mantulin, W.

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, R.

Maris, M.

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mattick, A. T.

Oseroff, A.

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Abramson, K. G. Spears, “Single pulse light-in-flight recording by holography,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1834–1841 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

Valdmanis, J.

vandeVen, M.

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biological samples using picosecond optical Kerr Gate,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 97–101 (1991).

Wong, K. S.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bioimaging (1)

E. Gratton, W. Mantulin, M. vandeVen, J. Fishkin, M. Maris, B. Chance, “A novel approach to laser tomography,” Bioimaging 1, 40–46 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chrono-coherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, “Transillumination imaging performance time of flight imaging system,” Med. Phys. 17, 351–356(1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. J. Gerritsen, “Holography and four wave mixing to see through the skin,” in Analog Optical Processing and Computing, H. J. Caulfield, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.519, 128–131 (1984).

L. Wang, Y. Liu, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic imaging of biological samples using picosecond optical Kerr Gate,” in Time-Resolved Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues, B. Chance, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1431, 97–101 (1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the first-arriving light for imaging through scattering media.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system for electronic holography for imaging through living tissue. The spatial filter reduces the spatial frequency content of the light distribution at the CCD, and the delay structure delays the reference beam by the amount needed to bring it to interference with the first-arriving light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of wires through transilluminated living human hand.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 but with 25 images averaged.

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