Abstract

Metal columns in an anodic alumina film exhibit a prominent anisotropy in the optical loss near the resonance wavelength. The resonance wavelength depends on the direction of polarization and varies with the volume ratio of the metal columns. Based on the anisotropy, we fabricated cube polarizers and attained an extinction ratio of > 30 dB near the 1-μm wavelength.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. R. Bird, M. Parrish, “The wire grid as a near-infrared polarizer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 886–891 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Stookey, R. J. Araujo, “Selective polarization of light due to absorption by small elongated silver particles in glass,” Appl. Opt. 7, 777–779 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Kawakami, “Light propagation along periodic metal-dielectric layers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2426–2428 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Mouchart, J. Begel, E. Duda, “Modified MacNeille cube polarizer for a wide angular field,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2847–2853 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Baba, J. Katsu, M. Miyagi, “Optical anisotropy of stretched gold island films: experimental results,” Opt. Lett. 17, 622–624 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Seki, M. Saito, M. Miyagai, “Ni-plated anodic alumina film for an optical polarizer,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E74, 3861–3866 (1991).
  7. D. G. W. Goad, M. Moskovits, “Colloidal metal in aluminum-oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2929–2934 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Å. Andersson, O. Hunderi, C. G. Granqvist, “Nickel pigmented anodic aluminum oxide for selective absorption of solar energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 754–764 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, “Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411–419 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. F. Huang, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Graded-index profile of anodic alumina films that is induced by conical pores,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2039–2044 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Saito, M. Kumagai, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Optical loss distribution in anodically oxidized alumina with a 2-D structure,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2257–2262 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Nakamura, M. Saito, L. F. Huang, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Infrared optical constants of anodic alumina films with micropore arrays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3589–3593 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), p. 71.
  18. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Part II.
  19. K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, “Three-dimensional optical disks using metallic island films: a proposal,” Electron. Lett. 28, 676–678 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Dobierzewska-Mozrzymas, P. Biegan̄ski, “Optical properties of discontinuous copper films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2345–2350(1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985), Chap. 1.

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Saito, L. F. Huang, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Infrared optical constants of anodic alumina films with micropore arrays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3589–3593 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Baba, J. Katsu, M. Miyagi, “Optical anisotropy of stretched gold island films: experimental results,” Opt. Lett. 17, 622–624 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

T. Seki, M. Saito, M. Miyagai, “Ni-plated anodic alumina film for an optical polarizer,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E74, 3861–3866 (1991).

M. Saito, M. Kumagai, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Optical loss distribution in anodically oxidized alumina with a 2-D structure,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2257–2262 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mouchart, J. Begel, E. Duda, “Modified MacNeille cube polarizer for a wide angular field,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2847–2853 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, “Three-dimensional optical disks using metallic island films: a proposal,” Electron. Lett. 28, 676–678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Å. Andersson, O. Hunderi, C. G. Granqvist, “Nickel pigmented anodic aluminum oxide for selective absorption of solar energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 754–764 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. G. W. Goad, M. Moskovits, “Colloidal metal in aluminum-oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2929–2934 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1960 (1)

1953 (1)

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, “Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411–419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, Å.

Å. Andersson, O. Hunderi, C. G. Granqvist, “Nickel pigmented anodic aluminum oxide for selective absorption of solar energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 754–764 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, R. J.

Baba, K.

K. Baba, J. Katsu, M. Miyagi, “Optical anisotropy of stretched gold island films: experimental results,” Opt. Lett. 17, 622–624 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, “Three-dimensional optical disks using metallic island films: a proposal,” Electron. Lett. 28, 676–678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Begel, J.

Bhide, V. G.

R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Biegan¯ski, P.

Bird, G. R.

Blain, J.

J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985), Chap. 1.

Cody, G. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. W.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, M. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dobierzewska-Mozrzymas, E.

Duda, E.

Goad, D. G. W.

D. G. W. Goad, M. Moskovits, “Colloidal metal in aluminum-oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2929–2934 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Å. Andersson, O. Hunderi, C. G. Granqvist, “Nickel pigmented anodic aluminum oxide for selective absorption of solar energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 754–764 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. F.

L. F. Huang, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Graded-index profile of anodic alumina films that is induced by conical pores,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2039–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Saito, L. F. Huang, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Infrared optical constants of anodic alumina films with micropore arrays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3589–3593 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hunderi, O.

Å. Andersson, O. Hunderi, C. G. Granqvist, “Nickel pigmented anodic aluminum oxide for selective absorption of solar energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 754–764 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, M. S.

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, “Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411–419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Katsu, J.

Kawakami, S.

Keller, F.

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, “Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411–419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

LeBel, C.

J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mbise, G.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miyagai, M.

T. Seki, M. Saito, M. Miyagai, “Ni-plated anodic alumina film for an optical polarizer,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E74, 3861–3866 (1991).

Miyagi, M.

Moskovits, M.

D. G. W. Goad, M. Moskovits, “Colloidal metal in aluminum-oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2929–2934 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mouchart, J.

Nagar, V. K.

R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Saito, L. F. Huang, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Infrared optical constants of anodic alumina films with micropore arrays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3589–3593 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, S.

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, “Three-dimensional optical disks using metallic island films: a proposal,” Electron. Lett. 28, 676–678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, M.

Patel, R. D.

R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rheault, F.

J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. L.

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, “Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411–419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Jacques, R. G.

J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

L. F. Huang, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Graded-index profile of anodic alumina films that is induced by conical pores,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2039–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Saito, L. F. Huang, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Infrared optical constants of anodic alumina films with micropore arrays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3589–3593 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Saito, M. Kumagai, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Optical loss distribution in anodically oxidized alumina with a 2-D structure,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2257–2262 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seki, M. Saito, M. Miyagai, “Ni-plated anodic alumina film for an optical polarizer,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E74, 3861–3866 (1991).

Seki, T.

T. Seki, M. Saito, M. Miyagai, “Ni-plated anodic alumina film for an optical polarizer,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E74, 3861–3866 (1991).

Smith, G. B.

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stookey, S. D.

Takwale, M. G.

R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), p. 71.

Wada, K.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985), Chap. 1.

Yamada, R.

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, “Three-dimensional optical disks using metallic island films: a proposal,” Electron. Lett. 28, 676–678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Mbise, G. B. Smith, G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, “Angular-selective optical properties of Cr films made by oblique-angle evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 987–989 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Baba, R. Yamada, S. Nakao, M. Miyagi, “Three-dimensional optical disks using metallic island films: a proposal,” Electron. Lett. 28, 676–678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. G. W. Goad, M. Moskovits, “Colloidal metal in aluminum-oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2929–2934 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Å. Andersson, O. Hunderi, C. G. Granqvist, “Nickel pigmented anodic aluminum oxide for selective absorption of solar energy,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 754–764 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Blain, C. LeBel, R. G. Saint-Jacques, F. Rheault, “Spectrally selective surfaces of Co-pigmented anodic Al2O3,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 490–494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

F. Keller, M. S. Hunter, D. L. Robinson, “Structural features of oxide coatings on aluminum,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 411–419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Saito, L. F. Huang, M. Miyagi, K. Wada, “Infrared optical constants of anodic alumina films with micropore arrays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3589–3593 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, “Optical properties of granular silver and gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689–3701 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. D. Patel, M. G. Takwale, V. K. Nagar, V. G. Bhide, “Structured selective coatings,” Thin Solid Films 115, 169–184 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. (1)

T. Seki, M. Saito, M. Miyagai, “Ni-plated anodic alumina film for an optical polarizer,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. E74, 3861–3866 (1991).

Other (3)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), p. 71.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), Part II.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1985), Chap. 1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication procedure of a metal-implanted alumina film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of a polarizer by use of metal-implanted alumina film: θ0, θ1, θ2, angles of incidence and refraction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex refractive indices njκ for P and S polarizations. Alumina films with (a) Cu and (b) Ni columns are shown. n and κ were calculated theoretically by use of Eqs. (1) and (2) with n1 = 1.6, f = 0.1, n G = 1.7, θ0 = 60 deg, and n ^ 2 taken from Ref. 18.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical attenuations of metal-implanted alumina films that are fixed between glass prisms. Bold, light, and dotted curves correspond to alumina films with Cu, Ni, and Ag columns, respectively. A theoretical calculation was carried out for n1 = 1.6, f = 0.1, n G = 1.7, θ0 = 60 deg, t = 20 μm, t m = 0.5 μm, and n ^ 2 taken from Ref. 18. The ripples in the curves are caused by optical interference in the alumina films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Attenuation spectra calculated theoretically for various polarizers made of Cu-implanted alumina films. (a) Dependence on the volume ratio f (n G = 1.7, θ0 = 60 deg, t m = 0.5 μm). (b) Dependence on the refractive index n G of glass prisms(f = 0.1, θ0 = 60 deg, t m = 0.5 μm). (c) Dependence on the incident angle θ0(f = 0.1, n G = 1.7, t m = 0.5 μm). (d) Dependence on the column height t m (f = 0.1, n G = 1.7, θ0 = 60 deg). n1 and t were assumed to be 1.6 and 20 μm, respectively, and the data of n ^ 2 were taken from Ref. 18. The small and large ripples in the curves are caused by optical interference in layers I and II.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Attenuation spectra of Cu-implanted alumina films for (a) P and (b) S polarizations. The dots show the experimental values that were measured for alumina films of t = 20 μm and t m = 0.15 μm. One of the films (Cu) was immersed in a sulfuric acid solution for 90 min before it was electroplated. The films were not attached to prisms, and hence light impinged upon the film directly from air at θ0 = 60 deg. The light curves show the theoretical values that were calculated for f = 0.1 or 0.2, n G = 1.0 (air), θ0 = 60 dog, t = 20 μm, and t m = 0.15 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured attenuation spectra of Cu-implanted alumina films that are sandwiched between glass prisms of n G = 1.6 or 1.7 (t = 20 μm, t m = 0.5 μm, θ0 = 60 deg).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Attenuation spectra measured for polarizers of θ0 = 45 and 60 deg (Cu-implanted alumina, n G = 1.7, t = 20 μm, t m = 0.5 μm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of optical attenuation on column height t m : (a) P polarization and (b) S polarization; ○ ● △ and ▲, show the measured values for Cu-implanted alumina films of t m = 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 μm, respectively (n G = 1.7, θ0 = 45 deg, t = 20 μm).

Equations (2)

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n ^ i n 1 [ 1 - f n 1 2 - n ^ 2 2 ( 1 - L i ) n 1 2 + L i n ^ 2 2 ] 1 / 2             ( i = H or V ) ,
n ^ P = ( n ^ H 2 n ^ V 2 n ^ H 2 cos 2 θ 1 + n ^ V 2 sin 2 θ 1 ) 1 / 2 = ( n ^ V 2 + n ^ H 2 - n ^ V 2 n ^ H 2 n G 2 sin 2 θ 0 ) 1 / 2 , n ^ S = n ^ V ,

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