Losses are calculated for the single-mode graded-index- (GRIN-) lens coupler. The main advantage of this coupling system is large separation between fibers with small power loss. The excess loss of the GRIN-lens coupler is due primarily to the misalignments of the GRIN lenses and is most sensitive to angular tilt rather than lateral offset or end separation. The excess loss is calculated from the overlap of two differently sized or misaligned Gaussian beams. Experimental results show that this method is adequate for predicting losses that are due to misalignments of the GRIN lenses.
© 1994 Optical Society of America
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