Abstract

We demonstrate the integration, in a single glass substrate, of a 1.48/1.55-μm-wavelength multiplexer and a 1.30/1.55-μm-wavelength multiplexer followed by a 1/8 splitter by using potassium- and silver-double-ion-exchange processes. The wavelength multiplexers are based on nonsymmetric three-port Mach–Zehnder interferometers, and symmetrical Y junctions are used for achromatic splitting. The facet-to-facet excess loss in both the 1.48/1.55-μm multiplexer and in the integrated 1.30/1.55-μm multiplexer and 1/8 splitter is less than 2.7 dB. The device can be used, in connection with an erbium-doped fiber, in future wavelength division multiplexing subscriber networks in which amplification is needed in the 1.55-μm-wavelength region.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Analysis of symmetric directional coupler and asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometers as 1.30/1.55 μm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2083–2091 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, “Examination of two-step fabrication methods for single-mode fiber compatible ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1991, pp. 338–343.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Cheng, W. Lin, Y. Fujii, “Local field analysis of bent graded-index planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1461–1469 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, G. Zhang, A. Tervonen, “1.30-μm/1.55-μm and 1.48-μm/1.55-μm wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers made by double-ion exchange in glass,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 231.
  7. S. I. Najafi, “Waveguides and devices,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S.I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 137–167.
  8. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Mahapatra, J. M. Connors, “Thermal tapering of ion-exchanged channel guides in glass,” Opt. Lett. 3, 169–171 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Analysis of symmetric directional coupler and asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometers as 1.30/1.55 μm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2083–2091 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, “Examination of two-step fabrication methods for single-mode fiber compatible ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1991, pp. 338–343.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y. Cheng, W. Lin, Y. Fujii, “Local field analysis of bent graded-index planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1461–1469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Mahapatra, J. M. Connors, “Thermal tapering of ion-exchanged channel guides in glass,” Opt. Lett. 3, 169–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, W. Lin, Y. Fujii, “Local field analysis of bent graded-index planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1461–1469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Connors, J. M.

A. Mahapatra, J. M. Connors, “Thermal tapering of ion-exchanged channel guides in glass,” Opt. Lett. 3, 169–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

Y. Cheng, W. Lin, Y. Fujii, “Local field analysis of bent graded-index planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1461–1469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Analysis of symmetric directional coupler and asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometers as 1.30/1.55 μm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2083–2091 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, “Examination of two-step fabrication methods for single-mode fiber compatible ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1991, pp. 338–343.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, G. Zhang, A. Tervonen, “1.30-μm/1.55-μm and 1.48-μm/1.55-μm wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers made by double-ion exchange in glass,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 231.

Keck, D. B.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

Y. Cheng, W. Lin, Y. Fujii, “Local field analysis of bent graded-index planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1461–1469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahapatra, A.

A. Mahapatra, J. M. Connors, “Thermal tapering of ion-exchanged channel guides in glass,” Opt. Lett. 3, 169–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, A. J.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Analysis of symmetric directional coupler and asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometers as 1.30/1.55 μm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2083–2091 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, G. Zhang, A. Tervonen, “1.30-μm/1.55-μm and 1.48-μm/1.55-μm wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers made by double-ion exchange in glass,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 231.

S. I. Najafi, “Waveguides and devices,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S.I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 137–167.

Nolan, D. A.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pöyhönen, P.

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, “Examination of two-step fabrication methods for single-mode fiber compatible ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1991, pp. 338–343.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tahkokorpi, M.

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, “Examination of two-step fabrication methods for single-mode fiber compatible ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1991, pp. 338–343.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tammela, S.

Tervonen, A.

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Analysis of symmetric directional coupler and asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometers as 1.30/1.55 μm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2083–2091 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, S. Tammela, “Examination of two-step fabrication methods for single-mode fiber compatible ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1991, pp. 338–343.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, G. Zhang, A. Tervonen, “1.30-μm/1.55-μm and 1.48-μm/1.55-μm wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers made by double-ion exchange in glass,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 231.

Thompson, D. A.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, G. Zhang, A. Tervonen, “1.30-μm/1.55-μm and 1.48-μm/1.55-μm wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers made by double-ion exchange in glass,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 231.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “New integrated optical ring resonator in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1967–1968(1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Tervonen, P. Pöyhönen, S. Honkanen, M. Tahkokorpi, “A guided-wave Mach–Zehnder interferometer structure for wavelength multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 516–518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Y. Cheng, W. Lin, Y. Fujii, “Local field analysis of bent graded-index planar waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1461–1469 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, “Passive components in the subscriber loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623–1633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, “Analysis of symmetric directional coupler and asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometers as 1.30/1.55 μm dual wavelength demultiplexers/multiplexers,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2083–2091 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Mahapatra, J. M. Connors, “Thermal tapering of ion-exchanged channel guides in glass,” Opt. Lett. 3, 169–171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, G. Zhang, A. Tervonen, “1.30-μm/1.55-μm and 1.48-μm/1.55-μm wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers made by double-ion exchange in glass,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 231.

S. I. Najafi, “Waveguides and devices,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S.I. Najafi, ed. (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992), Chap. 6, pp. 137–167.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the passive integrated optical circuit in connection with an erbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured spectral transmission of the 1.48/1.55-μm-wavelength multiplexer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured fiber-chip insertion loss of the integrated 1.30/1.55-μm-wavelength multiplexer and 1/8 splitter (a) at 1.273-μm wavelength and (b) at 1.557-μm wavelength.

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