Abstract

We experimentally optimize double-ion-exchange process parameters to achieve a designed phase modulation for a wave front passing through a computer-generated waveguide hologram and numerically analyze the effects of fabrication errors. We also demonstrate a gradient-thickness waveguide hologram for⅛ beam splitting.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. W.-H. Lee, “Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. XVI, pp. 121–231.
  2. F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital holography as part of diffractive optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 54, 1481–1571 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).
  4. J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated guided-wave holography: application to beam splitting,” Opt. Lett. 17, 300–302 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 3–37.
  6. S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992).
  7. J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. M.-J. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Fully planar ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides with taps,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 575–577(1991).
  9. M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Honkanen, P. Pöyhönen, A. Tervonen, S. I. Najafi, “Waveguide coupler for potassium- and silver-ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2109–2111 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).
  13. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Insertion loss reduction between single-mode fibers and diffused channel waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4837–4843 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, “Model for waveguide fabrication in glass by two-step ion exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Lett. 13, 71–73 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. P. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1162–1167(1989).
  19. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  20. J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Numerical analysis of computer-synthesized multilevel phase gratings in guided-wave optics,” presented at the Sixth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO ’93, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.
  21. J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Volume diffraction effects in computer-generated guided-wave holography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1035–1043 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Beguin, P. Laborde, C. Lerminiaux, “Ion-exchange in glass components for telecommunications applications: high isolation WDM and 2 × N,” presented at EFOC/LAN ’91, London, 19–21 June 1991.
  23. C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
    [Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (4)

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated guided-wave holography: application to beam splitting,” Opt. Lett. 17, 300–302 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital holography as part of diffractive optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 54, 1481–1571 (1991).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Fully planar ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides with taps,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 575–577(1991).

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1162–1167(1989).

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

L. P. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Adar, R.

C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Insertion loss reduction between single-mode fibers and diffused channel waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4837–4843 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beguin, A.

A. Beguin, P. Laborde, C. Lerminiaux, “Ion-exchange in glass components for telecommunications applications: high isolation WDM and 2 × N,” presented at EFOC/LAN ’91, London, 19–21 June 1991.

Bryngdahl, O.

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital holography as part of diffractive optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 54, 1481–1571 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chartier, G. H.

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

Girod, A.

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, P. M.

L. P. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

S. Honkanen, P. Pöyhönen, A. Tervonen, S. I. Najafi, “Waveguide coupler for potassium- and silver-ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2109–2111 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, “Model for waveguide fabrication in glass by two-step ion exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Lett. 13, 71–73 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, M. McCourt, “Control of birefringence in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4710–4711 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).

Huttunen, J.

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Volume diffraction effects in computer-generated guided-wave holography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1035–1043 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated guided-wave holography: application to beam splitting,” Opt. Lett. 17, 300–302 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Numerical analysis of computer-synthesized multilevel phase gratings in guided-wave optics,” presented at the Sixth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO ’93, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).

Jordan, J. A.

L. P. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kazarinov, R. F.

C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kistler, R. C.

C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
[Crossref]

Laborde, P.

A. Beguin, P. Laborde, C. Lerminiaux, “Ion-exchange in glass components for telecommunications applications: high isolation WDM and 2 × N,” presented at EFOC/LAN ’91, London, 19–21 June 1991.

Laybourn, P. J. R.

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-H.

W.-H. Lee, “Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. XVI, pp. 121–231.

Lefebvre, P.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).

Leonelli, R.

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lerminiaux, C.

A. Beguin, P. Laborde, C. Lerminiaux, “Ion-exchange in glass components for telecommunications applications: high isolation WDM and 2 × N,” presented at EFOC/LAN ’91, London, 19–21 June 1991.

Lesem, L. P.

L. P. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-J.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Fully planar ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides with taps,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 575–577(1991).

McCourt, M.

Najafi, S. I.

S. Honkanen, P. Pöyhönen, A. Tervonen, S. I. Najafi, “Waveguide coupler for potassium- and silver-ion-exchanged waveguides in glass,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2109–2111 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Fully planar ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides with taps,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 575–577(1991).

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 3–37.

Noponen, E.

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

Pöyhönen, P.

Saarinen, J.

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Volume diffraction effects in computer-generated guided-wave holography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1035–1043 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated guided-wave holography: application to beam splitting,” Opt. Lett. 17, 300–302 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Numerical analysis of computer-synthesized multilevel phase gratings in guided-wave optics,” presented at the Sixth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO ’93, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).

Salin, A.

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

Suhara, T.

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 3–37.

Tervonen, A.

Turunen, J.

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Volume diffraction effects in computer-generated guided-wave holography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1035–1043 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated guided-wave holography: application to beam splitting,” Opt. Lett. 17, 300–302 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1162–1167(1989).

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Numerical analysis of computer-synthesized multilevel phase gratings in guided-wave optics,” presented at the Sixth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO ’93, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

Vasara, A.

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated guided-wave holography: application to beam splitting,” Opt. Lett. 17, 300–302 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1162–1167(1989).

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

Wang, W. J.

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

Westerholm, J.

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1162–1167(1989).

Wyrowski, F.

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital holography as part of diffractive optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 54, 1481–1571 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yip, G. L.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. H. Henry, R. Adar, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization-independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica waveguides on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779–1781 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.-J. Li, S. Honkanen, W. J. Wang, R. Leonelli, J. Albert, S. I. Najafi, “Potassium and silver ion-exchanged dual-core glass waveguides with gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2607–2609 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, J. Turunen, “Computer-generated waveguide holograms by double-ion exchange process in glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 876–878 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. H. Chartier, P. J. R. Laybourn, A. Girod, “Masking process for double-ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 22, 925–926 (1986).
[Crossref]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

L. P. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

M.-J. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Fully planar ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides with taps,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 6, 575–577(1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, W. J. Wang, P. Lefebvre, M.-J. Li, A. Tervonen, “Single-mode glass channel waveguides by ion-exchange with ionic masking,” Opt. Commun. 94, 54–58 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, J. Westerholm, “Kinoform phase relief synthesis: a stochastic method,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1162–1167(1989).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital holography as part of diffractive optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 54, 1481–1571 (1991).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

J. Saarinen, J. Huttunen, A. Vasara, E. Noponen, J. Turunen, A. Salin, “Synthetic holographic beamsplitters for integrated optics,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics; Fourth in a Series, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1555, 128–137 (1991).

H. Nishihara, T. Suhara, “Micro Fresnel lenses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Vol. XXIV, pp. 3–37.

S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, Mass., 1992).

W.-H. Lee, “Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. XVI, pp. 121–231.

Part of the material reported here is already published in J. Saarinen, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, P. Lefebvre, J. Huttunen, “Experimental optimization of double ion-exchange in glass for computer-generated waveguide holograms,” in Integrated Optical Circuits II, K.-K. Wong, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1794, 336–343 (1993).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

J. Saarinen, J. Turunen, J. Huttunen, “Numerical analysis of computer-synthesized multilevel phase gratings in guided-wave optics,” presented at the Sixth European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO ’93, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993.

A. Beguin, P. Laborde, C. Lerminiaux, “Ion-exchange in glass components for telecommunications applications: high isolation WDM and 2 × N,” presented at EFOC/LAN ’91, London, 19–21 June 1991.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication steps of a CGWH by the double-ion-exchange process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective mode indices of a double-ion-exchanged slab waveguide as a function of Ag-ion-exchange time with 45-min K-ion exchange as a first step. The substrate index 1.5223 is marked on the solid line across the vertical axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective-mode indices of a double-ion-exchanged slab waveguide (45-min K- and 105-min Ag-ion exchange) as a function of postannealing time at 300 °C for (a) TE0 and TM0 modes, (b) TE1 and TM1 modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode intensity distribution of (a) the fundamental mode in the K-ion-exchanged slab waveguide, (b) the fundamental mode in the double-ion-exchanged slab waveguide, (c) the first-order mode in the double-ion-exchanged waveguide. The air–glass interface is to the right and its approximate location is marked with a dashed line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase profile of a CGWH, which is designed for ⅛ beam splitting, consisting of 50 rectangular cells within each period. The inset shows the quantization of phase levels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of a CGWH (grating period 100 μm) designed for ⅛ beam splitting and fabricated by double-ion exchange (45-min K-ion exchange at 384 °C and 105-min Ag-ion exchange at 300 °C). Several dust particles in the microscope are also seen in the photograph.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Uniformity error (a) as a function of grating boundary shift Δ caused by overexposure (+) and underexposure (−) during the contact copying of the mask into the waveguide layer coated with a photoresist layer or by (+) side diffusion, (b) as a function of the deviation of Δneff from the value assumed when the phase profile structure of the CGWH is optimized.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Spot array generated by the CGWH, which is fabricated by 45-min K-ion exchange at 384 °C, 105-min Ag-ion exchange at 300 °C, and 20-min postannealing at 285 °C on a screen placed in the Fourier-transform plane of an external lens; (b) relative intensities of signal diffraction orders m = −4, …, −1, 1, …, 4 of the beam splitter.

Equations (1)

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Φ ( x ) = 2 π λ 0 0 h Δ n eff ( x ) d z ,

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