Abstract

A distributed-feedback InGaAsP diode laser, emitting near 1.38 μm, was used to acquire spectrally resolved absorption profiles of H2O lines in the ν1 + ν3 band at a repetition rate of 10 kHz. The profiles were used for simultaneous measurements of flow parameters in high-speed, one-dimensional (1-D) transient flows generated in a shock tube. Velocity was determined from the Doppler shift, which was measured with a pair of profiles simultaneously acquired at different angles with respect to the flow direction. Temperature was determined from the intensity ratio of two adjacent lines. Pressure and density were found from the fractional absorption. From these primary gasdynamic variables, the mass and momentum fluxes were determined. Experiments were conducted with three different gas mixtures in the shock tube: pure H2O at initial pressures lower than 3 Torr, up to 6% of H2O in O2 at initial pressures below 120 Torr, and up to 8% of H2 in O2 at initial pressures below 35 Torr. In the third case, pyrolysis of H2/O2 behind incident shocks produced known yields of H2O. With all three mixtures, results compare well with 1-D shock calculations. This H2O diagnostic strategy shows promise for applications in both ground and flight testing.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, T. H. Jefferson, “Chemkin: a general-purpose problem-independent, transportable, FORTRAN chemical kinetics code package,” Rep. SAND80-8003 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1980).
  14. R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “The Chemkin thermodynamic database,” Rep. SAND87-8215 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987).

1993

1991

1990

D. A. Masten, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, “Shock tube study of the reaction H + O2 → OH + O using OH laser absorption,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7119–7128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1976

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Maillard, “Higher Ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 2800-6200 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 32, 499-521 (1976); C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, J. P. Maillard, “Higher ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 6200 and 9100 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 33, 1641–1650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water vapor concentration, temperature and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser absorption technique for multiparameter measurements of combustion flows,” presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Spain, 20–23 July 1992.

Bowman, C. T.

D. A. Masten, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, “Shock tube study of the reaction H + O2 → OH + O using OH laser absorption,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7119–7128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Maillard, “Higher Ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 2800-6200 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 32, 499-521 (1976); C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, J. P. Maillard, “Higher ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 6200 and 9100 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 33, 1641–1650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

Davidson, D. F.

Delaye, C.

DiRosa, M. D.

Flaud, J. M.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Maillard, “Higher Ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 2800-6200 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 32, 499-521 (1976); C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, J. P. Maillard, “Higher ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 6200 and 9100 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 33, 1641–1650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, W. C.

W. C. Gardiner, B. F. Walker, C. B. Wakefield, “Mathematical methods for modeling chemical reactions in shock waves,” in Shock Waves in Chemistry, A. Lifshitz, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1981), Chap. 7, pp. 319–372.

Gaydon, A. G.

A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High-Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).

Hanson, R. K.

Hartmann, J.-M.

Hurle, I. R.

A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High-Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).

Jefferson, T. H.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, T. H. Jefferson, “Chemkin: a general-purpose problem-independent, transportable, FORTRAN chemical kinetics code package,” Rep. SAND80-8003 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1980).

Kee, R. J.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, T. H. Jefferson, “Chemkin: a general-purpose problem-independent, transportable, FORTRAN chemical kinetics code package,” Rep. SAND80-8003 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1980).

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “The Chemkin thermodynamic database,” Rep. SAND87-8215 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987).

Maillard, J. P.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Maillard, “Higher Ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 2800-6200 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 32, 499-521 (1976); C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, J. P. Maillard, “Higher ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 6200 and 9100 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 33, 1641–1650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Masten, D. A.

D. A. Masten, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, “Shock tube study of the reaction H + O2 → OH + O using OH laser absorption,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7119–7128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. A.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “The Chemkin thermodynamic database,” Rep. SAND87-8215 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987).

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, T. H. Jefferson, “Chemkin: a general-purpose problem-independent, transportable, FORTRAN chemical kinetics code package,” Rep. SAND80-8003 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1980).

Philippe, L. C.

Rea, E. C.

Rupley, F. M.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “The Chemkin thermodynamic database,” Rep. SAND87-8215 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987).

Taine, J.

Toth, R. A.

R. A. Toth, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, Calif. 91109 (personal communication, 1992).

Wakefield, C. B.

W. C. Gardiner, B. F. Walker, C. B. Wakefield, “Mathematical methods for modeling chemical reactions in shock waves,” in Shock Waves in Chemistry, A. Lifshitz, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1981), Chap. 7, pp. 319–372.

Walker, B. F.

W. C. Gardiner, B. F. Walker, C. B. Wakefield, “Mathematical methods for modeling chemical reactions in shock waves,” in Shock Waves in Chemistry, A. Lifshitz, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1981), Chap. 7, pp. 319–372.

Appl. Opt.

J. Phys. Chem.

D. A. Masten, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, “Shock tube study of the reaction H + O2 → OH + O using OH laser absorption,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7119–7128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Maillard, “Higher Ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 2800-6200 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 32, 499-521 (1976); C. Camy-Peyret, J. M. Flaud, J. P. Maillard, “Higher ro-vibrational levels of H2O deduced from high resolution oxygen-hydrogen flame spectra between 6200 and 9100 cm-1,” Mol. Phys. 33, 1641–1650 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

HITRAN Database, 1991 ed. (Digital Product Section, National Climatic Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Building, Asheville, N.C. 28801).

A. G. Gaydon, I. R. Hurle, The Shock Tube in High-Temperature Chemical Physics (Reinhold, New York, 1963).

W. C. Gardiner, B. F. Walker, C. B. Wakefield, “Mathematical methods for modeling chemical reactions in shock waves,” in Shock Waves in Chemistry, A. Lifshitz, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1981), Chap. 7, pp. 319–372.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, T. H. Jefferson, “Chemkin: a general-purpose problem-independent, transportable, FORTRAN chemical kinetics code package,” Rep. SAND80-8003 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1980).

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, “The Chemkin thermodynamic database,” Rep. SAND87-8215 (Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987).

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Tunable diode laser absorption technique for multiparameter measurements of combustion flows,” presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Spain, 20–23 July 1992.

R. A. Toth, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, Calif. 91109 (personal communication, 1992).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity ratio and its sensitivity to temperature versus temperature for the line pair 643 ← 642, 313 ← 312 (ν ≈ 7212.9 cm−1). The intensity ratio is defined so that it is always less than unity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental schematic. High-temperature, high-speed gases are produced in a shock tube. The diode-laser output is passed through the shock tube at 90° and 60° angles relative to the flow. The laser is tuned over an absorption feature at a rate of 10 kHz, and spectral profiles are recorded in absorption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental absorption traces in the flow generated behind an incident shock in the shock tube. The shock wave reached the test section at 1.1 ms. Note on the middle trace the difference of the line-center positions for the absorption scans acquired at 90° and 60° to the flow direction. Calculated post-shock conditions: T = 598 K, P = 0.317 atm, Vgas = 571 m/s, 5.9% H2O in O2. Diaphragm thickness, 0.25 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pair of reduced profiles from the data of Fig. 3, corresponding to the absorption features at 1.38 ms. The line shapes are −ln(1 − ΔI/I0), normalized to unity at the line center. The 313 ← 312 line is located −2.04 GHz from the larger 643 ← 642 line (ν = 7212.950 cm−1). A third line, much weaker than the other two lines and centered at −6.5 GHz from the 643 ← 642 line, is also apparent in the reduced profiles. The inferred gas velocity, temperatures, and pressures are 597 m/s, 588 K (60°), 580 K (90°), 0.332 atm (60°), and 0.328 atm (90°), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pair of reduced profiles for three different types of shocks. The line shapes are −ln(1 − ΔI/I0), normalized to unity at line center. The 313 ← 312 line is located −2.02 GHz from the larger 643 ← 642 line (ν = 7212.950 cm−1). A third line, weaker than the other two lines and centered at −6.5 GHz from the 643 ← 642 line, is also apparent in the reduced profiles, (a) Shock in a mixture of 3% of H2O in O2 for a diaphragm thickness of 1 mm. The inferred gas velocity, temperatures, and pressures are 586 m/s, 588 K (60°), 551 K (90°), 1.018 atm (60°), and 1.005 atm (90°), respectively, (b) Shock in pure H2O. The inferred gas velocity, temperatures, and pressures are 1532 m/s, 1070 K (60°), 1040 K (90°), 0.031 atm (60°), and 0.031 atm (90°), respectively. (c) Shock in a mixture of 8.1% of H2 in O2. The inferred gas velocity and pressures are 1136 m/s, 0.454 atm (60°), and 0.443 atm (90°), respectively. The temperature has not been inferred because the sensitivity of the line pair is too low above 1350 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of (a) gas temperature, (b) pressure, and (c) velocity as a function of time at our measurement location, 45 cm from the end wall of the shock tube. The initial pressure is 0.046 atm for a mixture of 5.9% H2O in O2. Calculated postshock conditions: T = 598 K, P = 0.317 atm, Vgas = 571 m/s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the relative line-center positions for the absorption signals measured along the two probe directions of the flow; evidence of a collision-induced frequency shift is given by the discontinuity of the curve corresponding to 90° (solid circles) occurring at 1.3 ms; the absorption signal at 60° (hollow circles) experiences a collision-induced shift and a Doppler shift in the same direction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured axial gas velocity versus calculated velocity. The symbols represent the data from the experiments; the solid line represents the 1-D shock calculation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured temperature versus calculated temperature: solid symbols, data from 90° beam; open symbols, data from 60° beam; solid line, 1-D shock calculation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured total pressure from the fractional absorption versus calculated pressure: solid symbols, data from 90° beam; hollow symbols, data from 60° beam; solid line, 1-D shock calculation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured density from the fractional absorption versus calculated density: solid symbols, data from 90° beam; open symbols, data from 60° beam; solid line, 1-D shock calculation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured mass flux versus calculated mass flux: solid symbols, experimental data; solid line, 1-D shock calculation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measured momentum flux versus calculated mass flux: solid symbols, experimental data; solid line, 1-D shock calculation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Range of Initial Conditions, Postshock Gas Conditions, and Absorption Levels in the Incident Shock Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Conditions (P, T, V) and Measured Parameters for the Profiles Shown in Figs. 4 and 5

Equations (7)

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R = S ( T 0 , ν 1 ) / S ( T 0 , ν 2 ) × exp [ ( h c / k ) ( E 1 E 2 ) ( 1 / T 1 / T 0 ) ] ,
d R / d T = ( h c / k ) ( E 1 E 2 ) R / T 2 .
P = P abs / X .
Δ ν D = ( ν 0 / c ) V cos ϕ ,
ρ = P / ( T R / M ) ,
m ˙ = ρ V , m ˙ V = ρ V 2 .
V ( m / s ) = 2765 Δ ν s ( GHz ) .

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